Skip to main content

Serum cytokine and chemokine changes during Toscana virus meningitis

Abstract

Toscana virus is an important arbovirus causing meningitis and meningoencephalitis in countries around the Mediterranean Sea. While the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been well described, less is known about the immune response in Toscana virus meningitis and a possible use of cytokine and chemokine changes for the clinical follow-up of patients. We here characterized serum cytokine and chemokine profiles from 37 patients during the acute and convalescent phase of the infection. Only few serum cytokine/chemokine changes were detected during Toscana virus meningitis. Markedly increased concentrations of IP-10, interferon-α, IL-22, and eotaxin were found in the acute phase. Levels of interferon-α, IL-22, and eotaxin remained elevated in the convalescent phase, but decreased concentrations of GM-CSF were detected.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Charrel RN, Bichaud L, de Lamballerie X (2012) Emergence of Toscana virus in the mediterranean area. World J Virol. 1(5):135–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Charrel RN, Gallian P, Navarro-Mari JM, Nicoletti L, Papa A, Sanchez-Seco MP et al (2005) Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 11(11):1657–1663

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Baldelli F, Ciufolini MG, Francisci D, Marchi A, Venturi G, Fiorentini C et al (2004) Unusual presentation of life-threatening Toscana virus meningoencephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 38(4):515–520

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bartels S, de Boni L, Kretzschmar HA, Heckmann JG (2012) Lethal encephalitis caused by the Toscana virus in an elderly patient. J Neurol 259(1):175–177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kuhn J, Bewermeyer H, Hartmann-Klosterkoetter U, Emmerich P, Schilling S, Valassina M (2005) Toscana virus causing severe meningoencephalitis in an elderly traveller. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76(11):1605–1606

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Sanbonmatsu-Gamez S, Perez-Ruiz M, Palop-Borras B, Navarro-Mari JM (2009) Unusual manifestation of toscana virus infection Spain. Emerg Infect Dis 15(2):347–348

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Tappe D, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Günther S, Ries A, Ziegler U, Müller A et al (2010) Acute Toscana virus infection mimicked by Yersinia-induced reactive arthritis syndrome after journey to Spain. J Clin Virol 47(1):104–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Varani S, Gelsomino F, Bartoletti M, Viale P, Mastroianni A, Briganti E et al (2015) Meningitis caused by Toscana virus is associated with strong antiviral response in the CNS and altered frequency of blood antigen-presenting cells. Viruses 7(11):5831–5843

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kothur K, Wienholt L, Brilot F, Dale RC (2016) CSF cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in neuroinflammatory CNS disorders: a systematic review. Cytokine 77:227–237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Liu M, Guo S, Hibbert JM, Jain V, Singh N, Wilson NO et al (2011) CXCL10/IP-10 in infectious diseases pathogenesis and potential therapeutic implications. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 22(3):121–130

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Garcia-Zepeda EA, Rothenberg ME, Ownbey RT, Celestin J, Leder P, Luster AD (1996) Human eotaxin is a specific chemoattractant for eosinophil cells and provides a new mechanism to explain tissue eosinophilia. Nat Med 2(4):449–456

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gimeno Brias S, Stack G, Stacey MA, Redwood AJ, Humphreys IR (2016) The role of IL-22 in viral infections: paradigms and paradoxes. Front Immunol 7:211

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Antonia Mantella for collaboration in retrieving serum samples.

Funding

None.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dennis Tappe.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflicts of interest. No author has a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest (e.g., pharmaceutical stock ownership, consultancy, advisory board membership, relevant patents, or research funding).

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Edited by: Stephan Becker.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rauch, J., Zammarchi, L., Corti, G. et al. Serum cytokine and chemokine changes during Toscana virus meningitis. Med Microbiol Immunol 208, 727–730 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00611-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Toscana virus
  • Arbovirus
  • Phlebovirus
  • Meningitis
  • Meningoencephalitis
  • Cytokine