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Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 223, Issue 6, pp 3007–3009 | Cite as

Correction to: Investigation of brain structure in the 1-month infant

  • Douglas C. DeanIII
  • E. M. Planalp
  • W. Wooten
  • C. K. Schmidt
  • S. R. Kecskemeti
  • C. Frye
  • N. L. Schmidt
  • H. H. Goldsmith
  • A. L. Alexander
  • R. J. Davidson
Correction

Correction to: Brain Structure and Function  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1600

The authors regret that, in this article, there was an error in the analyses comparing infant male and female regional brain volume differences. In Table 3 of the original manuscript, we accurately present the mean infant male and female brain volumes. However, ANOVA analyses comparing the male and female regional brain volumes were miscalculated. Percent differences, though accurately calculated for raw regional brain volumes, were misattributed during interpretation of our findings. The first five columns of the original Table 3 correspond to analyses not controlling for total brain volume and age; the last column, ‘Direction’, presented findings of analyses that were calculated after controlling for total brain volume and infant age. This was not clearly described in the original manuscript. We inadvertently interpreted the findings from the corrected and uncorrected analyses together, resulting in incorrect conclusions regarding sex differences in the infant brain after controlling for total brain volume and age. Only results pertaining to the comparison of regional brain volume differences between males and females were affected.

We have reevaluated analyses examining differences between male and female regional brain volumes and clarified our results in a revised table as part of this correction. This table more clearly distinguishes analyses between male and female differences in regional brain volumes prior to and after controlling for total brain volume and age. After controlling for total brain volume and age, the male and female differences follow the same direction as originally indicated in the last column of Table 3 but are not significant.

In summary, the major ramification of the error reported here is a change in the extent to which regional brain volumes differ between males and females at 1 month of age and our conclusions regarding such findings. These amended results more clearly align with the previous neuroimaging reports of childhood and adolescent sex differences. The amended results indicate that raw sex differences in specific regions of interest are driven by total brain volume sex differences. Table 1 of this correction provides an updated version of Table 3 from the original manuscript and describes regional brain differences between males and females prior to and after controlling for total brain volume and age.

Table 1

Updated version of Table 3 from the original manuscript comparing volumetric brain measures between males and females without and with correction for total brain volume (TBV) and gestation-corrected age

 

Uncorrected volume comparison

Comparison after correction of TBV and age

Male

Female

T

p value

Difference (%)

Direction

T

p value

Direction

Significant

Total brain volume

611.48 ± 47.5

562.7 ± 50.6

5.94

0.001

8.32

Male

Gray matter

158.68 ± 12.9

146.22 ± 13.4

5.68

0.001

8.18

Male

1.68

0.094

Female

No

White matter

194.91 ± 15

179.21 ± 15.1

6.23

0.001

8.40

Male

− 1.13

0.260

Male

No

Gray matter regions

 Left amygdala

0.73 ± 0.1

0.67 ± 0.1

5.91

0.001

9.11

Male

− 1.60

0.112

Male

No

 Right Amygala

0.78 ± 0.1

0.71 ± 0.1

6.29

0.001

10.04

Male

− 2.25

0.026

Male

No

 Left caudate

3.05 ± 0.3

2.81 ± 0.3

4.77

0.001

8.23

Male

0.19

0.849

Female

No

 Right caudate

3.09 ± 0.3

2.85 ± 0.3

4.62

0.001

8.02

Male

0.27

0.790

Female

No

 Left hippocampus

2.6 ± 0.2

2.4 ± 0.2

5.53

0.001

8.09

Male

− 1.07

0.285

Male

No

 Right hippocampus

2.71 ± 0.2

2.5 ± 0.2

5.54

0.001

7.86

Male

− 1.28

0.203

Male

No

 Left putamen

3.66 ± 0.3

3.4 ± 0.3

5.17

0.001

7.57

Male

− 0.94

0.348

Male

No

 Right putamen

3.87 ± 0.3

3.55 ± 0.3

5.70

0.001

8.46

Male

− 1.95

0.053

Male

No

 Left pallidum

0.82 ± 0.1

0.77 ± 0.1

4.61

0.001

6.81

Male

− 0.05

0.958

Male

No

 Right pallidum

0.85 ± 0.1

0.79 ± 0.1

5.13

0.001

7.65

Male

− 1.10

0.273

Male

No

 Left insula

6.01 ± 0.6

5.59 ± 0.5

4.51

0.001

7.15

Male

− 0.13

0.900

Male

No

 Right insula

6.26 ± 0.6

5.77 ± 0.5

5.04

0.001

8.11

Male

− 1.27

0.207

Male

No

 Left thalamus

3.17 ± 0.2

2.96 ± 0.2

5.40

0.001

6.91

Male

− 0.84

0.402

Male

No

 Right thalamus

3.21 ± 0.3

2.99 ± 0.2

5.16

0.001

7.04

Male

− 1.35

0.178

Male

No

 Left anterior cingulate gyrus

5.21 ± 0.7

4.68 ± 0.5

5.28

0.001

10.79

Male

0.20

0.838

Female

No

 Right antrior cingulate gyrus

5.36 ± 0.7

4.82 ± 0.6

5.14

0.001

10.64

Male

0.43

0.669

Female

No

 Left middle cingulate gyrus

7.42 ± 0.7

6.82 ± 0.7

5.10

0.001

8.51

Male

0.23

0.821

Female

No

 Right middle cingulate gyrus

7.53 ± 0.8

6.93 ± 0.7

4.67

0.001

8.25

Male

1.03

0.307

Female

No

 Left posterior cingulate gyrus

0.96 ± 0.1

0.87 ± 0.1

4.94

0.001

9.14

Male

− 0.68

0.496

Male

No

 Right posterior cingulate gyrus

0.96 ± 0.1

0.88 ± 0.1

5.73

0.001

9.09

Male

− 0.86

0.392

Male

No

 Left parahippocampal gyrus

4.04 ± 0.4

3.77 ± 0.4

4.35

0.001

6.97

Male

0.80

0.423

Female

No

 Right parahippocampal gyrus

4.24 ± 0.4

3.97 ± 0.4

4.16

0.001

6.66

Male

0.86

0.391

Female

No

White matter regions

         

 Left corpus callosum

4.61 ± 0.4

4.23 ± 0.4

5.21

0.001

8.54

Male

0.49

0.623

Female

No

 Right corpus callosum

4.59 ± 0.5

4.2 ± 0.4

5.14

0.001

8.80

Male

0.36

0.716

Female

No

 Left anterior limb of internal capsule

1.4 ± 0.1

1.29 ± 0.1

5.08

0.001

8.29

Male

− 0.99

0.323

Male

No

 Right anterior limb of internal capsule

1.39 ± 0.1

1.29 ± 0.1

4.65

0.001

7.45

Male

− 0.35

0.729

Male

No

 Left posterior limb of internal capsule

2.06 ± 0.2

1.93 ± 0.2

3.98

0.001

6.44

Male

− 0.23

0.817

Male

No

 Right posterior limb of internal capsule

1.97 ± 0.2

1.85 ± 0.2

3.97

0.001

6.13

Male

0.22

0.826

Female

No

 Left retrolenticular limb of internal capsule

0.49 ± 0.1

0.46 ± 0

3.84

0.001

6.60

Male

− 0.75

0.457

Male

No

 Right retrolenticular limb of internal capsule

0.46 ± 0.1

0.44 ± 0

2.85

0.005

5.43

Male

1.23

0.220

Female

No

 Left superior longitudinal fasciculus

0.79 ± 0.1

0.72 ± 0.1

5.47

0.001

9.34

Male

− 1.23

0.222

Male

No

 Right superior longitudinal fasciculus

0.76 ± 0.1

0.68 ± 0.1

5.42

0.001

10.26

Male

− 1.49

0.139

Male

No

 Left sagittal stratum

1.22 ± 0.1

1.11 ± 0.1

5.90

0.001

9.44

Male

− 2.10

0.038

Male

No

 Right sagittal stratum

1.21 ± 0.1

1.1 ± 0.1

5.74

0.001

9.85

Male

− 1.42

0.159

Male

No

Mean ± standard deviation of uncorrected regional brain volumes are reported in cm3. Significance was defined as p  < 0.05 (Bonferroni corrected for multiple comparisons) corresponding to p  <  0.00135. p values meeting the significance criteria are bolded. No significant differences between males and females were observed after correction for TBV and age

All other results of the original manuscript pertaining to age, asymmetry, and interactions among predictor variables were presented and discussed accurately.

The authors apologize for this error.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas C. DeanIII
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. M. Planalp
    • 1
    • 3
  • W. Wooten
    • 2
  • C. K. Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. R. Kecskemeti
    • 1
  • C. Frye
    • 2
  • N. L. Schmidt
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. H. Goldsmith
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. L. Alexander
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • R. J. Davidson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Waisman CenterUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Center for Healthy MindsUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Medical PhysicsUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

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