Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 223, Issue 3, pp 1275–1296 | Cite as

Mapping GPR88-Venus illuminates a novel role for GPR88 in sensory processing

  • Aliza T. Ehrlich
  • Meriem Semache
  • Julie Bailly
  • Stefan Wojcik
  • Tanzil M. Arefin
  • Christine Colley
  • Christian Le Gouill
  • Florence Gross
  • Viktoriya Lukasheva
  • Mireille Hogue
  • Emmanuel Darcq
  • Laura-Adela Harsan
  • Michel Bouvier
  • Brigitte L. Kieffer
Original Article


GPR88 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor originally characterized as a striatal-enriched transcript and is a potential target for neuropsychiatric disorders. At present, gene knockout studies in the mouse have essentially focused on striatal-related functions and a comprehensive knowledge of GPR88 protein distribution and function in the brain is still lacking. Here, we first created Gpr88-Venus knock-in mice expressing a functional fluorescent receptor to fine-map GPR88 localization in the brain. The receptor protein was detected in neuronal soma, fibers and primary cilia depending on the brain region, and remarkably, whole-brain mapping revealed a yet unreported layer-4 cortical lamination pattern specifically in sensory processing areas. The unique GPR88 barrel pattern in L4 of the somatosensory cortex appeared 3 days after birth and persisted into adulthood, suggesting a potential function for GPR88 in sensory integration. We next examined Gpr88 knockout mice for cortical structure and behavioral responses in sensory tasks. Magnetic resonance imaging of live mice revealed abnormally high fractional anisotropy, predominant in somatosensory cortex and caudate putamen, indicating significant microstructural alterations in these GPR88-enriched areas. Further, behavioral analysis showed delayed responses in somatosensory-, visual- and olfactory-dependent tasks, demonstrating a role for GPR88 in the integration rather than perception of sensory stimuli. In conclusion, our data show for the first time a prominent role for GPR88 in multisensory processing. Because sensory integration is disrupted in many psychiatric diseases, our study definitely positions GPR88 as a target to treat mental disorders perhaps via activity on cortical sensory networks.


Orphan G protein-coupled receptor Gpr88 Knock-in and knockout mice Gpr88-Venus fluorescent protein Layer 4 cortex Primary cilia 



This work was supported by CQDM/Region Alsace/EU to BLK & MB, the US National Institute of Health (National Institute of Drug Abuse Grant no. 05010 to BLK and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Grant no. 16658 to BLK), the Canada Fund for Innovation and the Canada Research Chairs to BLK and MB, and the Canadian Institute for Health Research (Grant no. MOP-10501 to MB). Conception and design of experiments were performed by ATE, JB, MS, LH, BLK, MB. Acquisition of data were performed by ATE, MS, JB, SW, TMA, CC, FG. Analysis of data were contributed by ATE, MS, FG, JB, TMA and ED. Design of tools or reagents was performed by CL, MH and VL. The original manuscript was written by ATE, ED and BLK. Revising and editing of the manuscript was done by ATE, BLK, ED, MS, TMA, LH, MB. We acknowledge Josée Prud’homme for preparation of human tissue specimens and the Douglas–Bell Canada Brain Bank that is supported by the Quebec Suicide Research Network of the Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Santé (FRQS) and by the Douglas Institute Foundation. The present study used the services of the Molecular and Cellular Microscopy Platform at the Douglas Hospital and Research Center. We would like to thank Monique Lagace for helpful discussions on the use of BRET biosensors. We also thank the mouse clinic institute (Illkirch, France) for mouse generation. We thank Aude Villemain, Eujin Kim and Aimee Lee Luco for animal care and genotyping. We thank the staff at the animal facility of the Neurophenotyping Center Douglas Hospital Research Center for the housing and maintenance of the animals.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no potential conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aliza T. Ehrlich
    • 1
    • 6
  • Meriem Semache
    • 2
  • Julie Bailly
    • 1
  • Stefan Wojcik
    • 1
    • 9
  • Tanzil M. Arefin
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Christine Colley
    • 1
    • 9
  • Christian Le Gouill
    • 2
  • Florence Gross
    • 1
    • 2
  • Viktoriya Lukasheva
    • 2
  • Mireille Hogue
    • 2
  • Emmanuel Darcq
    • 1
  • Laura-Adela Harsan
    • 3
    • 7
    • 8
  • Michel Bouvier
    • 2
  • Brigitte L. Kieffer
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMcGill University, Douglas Hospital Research CenterMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Research in Immunology and CancerUniversité de MontréalMontréalCanada
  3. 3.Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  4. 4.Faculty of BiologyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  5. 5.Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical ImagingNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et CellulaireIllkirch-GraffenstadenFrance
  7. 7.Engineering Science, Computer Science and Imaging Laboratory (ICube), Integrative Multimodal Imaging in HealthcareUniversity of Strasbourg, CNRSStrasbourgFrance
  8. 8.Department of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity Hospital StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance
  9. 9.Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

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