Brain Structure and Function

, Volume 221, Issue 1, pp 447–461 | Cite as

Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia

  • Gang Li
  • Li Wang
  • Feng Shi
  • Amanda E. Lyall
  • Mihye Ahn
  • Ziwen Peng
  • Hongtu Zhu
  • Weili Lin
  • John H. Gilmore
  • Dinggang ShenEmail author
Original Article


Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly smaller cortical surface area in the right pars triangularis (before FDR correction), compared with control neonates. This preliminary study provides the first evidence that early development of cortical thickness and surface area might be abnormal in the neonates at genetic risk for schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia Schizoaffective disorder High-risk Neonates Cortical surface area Cortical thickness 



The authors would like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for providing constructive and detailed suggestions that have improved this paper significantly. This work was supported in part by National Institutes of Health (grant numbers EB006733, EB008760, EB008374, EB009634, MH088520, MH070890, MH064065, MH100217, NS055754, and HD053000).

Conflict of interest

All authors report no potential conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

429_2014_917_MOESM1_ESM.doc (423 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 423 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gang Li
    • 1
    • 5
  • Li Wang
    • 1
  • Feng Shi
    • 1
  • Amanda E. Lyall
    • 3
  • Mihye Ahn
    • 4
  • Ziwen Peng
    • 1
  • Hongtu Zhu
    • 4
  • Weili Lin
    • 1
  • John H. Gilmore
    • 3
  • Dinggang Shen
    • 1
    • 5
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Radiology and BRICUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Department of Brain and Cognitive EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biostatistics and BRICUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  5. 5.Radiology and BRIC, UNC-CH School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

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