Greater than the sum of its parts: a review of studies combining structural connectivity and resting-state functional connectivity
- 7.4k Downloads
It is commonly assumed that functional brain connectivity reflects structural brain connectivity. The exact relationship between structure and function, however, might not be straightforward. In this review we aim to examine how our understanding of the relationship between structure and function in the ‘resting’ brain has advanced over the last several years. We discuss eight articles that directly compare resting-state functional connectivity with structural connectivity and three clinical case studies of patients with limited white matter connections between the cerebral hemispheres. All studies examined show largely convergent results: the strength of resting-state functional connectivity is positively correlated with structural connectivity strength. However, functional connectivity is also observed between regions where there is little or no structural connectivity, which most likely indicates functional correlations mediated by indirect structural connections (i.e. via a third region). As the methodologies for measuring structural and functional connectivity continue to improve and their complementary strengths are applied in parallel, we can expect important advances in our diagnostic and prognostic capacities in diseases like Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and stroke.
KeywordsResting-state functional connectivity Structural connectivity DTI fMRI
We thank Lucina Uddin and Elena Rykhlevskaia for valuable discussion and comments on the paper.
- Biswal B (1995) Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI. MRM 34:537–541Google Scholar
- Buckner RL, Snyder AZ, Shannon BJ, LaRossa G, Sachs R, Fotenos AF, Sheline YI, Klunk WE, Mathis CA, Morris JC, Mintun MA (2005) Molecular, structural, and functional characterization of Alzheimer’s disease: evidence for a relationship between default activity, amyloid, and memory. J Neurosci 25(34):7709–7717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Damoiseaux J, Smith S, Witter M, Arigita E, Barkhof F, Scheltens P, Stam C, Zarei M, Rombouts S (2009) White matter tract integrity in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Hum Brain Mapp 30(4):1051–1059Google Scholar
- Desikan R, Ségonne F, Fischl B, Quinn B, Dickerson B, Blacker D, Buckner R, Dale A, Maguire R, Hyman B, Albert M, Killiany R (2006) An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. Neuroimage 31(3):968–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greicius M, Supekar K, Menon V, Dougherty R (2009) Resting-state functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity in the default mode network. Cereb Cortex 19(1):72–78. Epub 2008 Apr 9Google Scholar
- He Y, Chen ZJ, Evans AC (2007) Small-World anatomical networks in the human brain revealed by cortical thickness from MRI. Cereb Cortex 17(10):2407–2419. Epub 2007 Jan 4Google Scholar
- Shehzad Z, Kelly AM, Reiss PT, Gee DG, Gotimer K, Uddin LQ, Lee SH, Margulies DS, Roy AK, Biswal BB, Petkova E, Castellanos FX, Milham MP (2009) The resting brain: unconstrained yet reliable. Cereb Cortex. Feb 16 [Epub ahead of print] Google Scholar
- Teipel S, Pogarell O, Meindl T, Dietrich O, Sydykova D, Hunklinger U, Georgii B, Mulert C, Reiser M, Möller H, Hampel H (2009) Regional networks underlying interhemispheric connectivity: an EEG and DTI study in healthy ageing and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 30(7):2098–2119Google Scholar