Hormonal receptors in cutaneous vascular malformations: 51 cases
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Vascular malformations (VMs) are rare congenital anomalies that develop during embryogenesis in different types of vessels. Several triggering factors of cutaneous VMs include trauma, infections, or hormonal changes. We investigated the expression of hormonal receptors (androgen, estrogen, progesterone) in tissue samples of well-characterized VMs. A secondary objective was to identify self-reported triggering factors for these VMs, including hormonal changes, in the cohort of patients. We included patients with VM samples obtained in the tertiary center for vascular anomalies of the University Hospital Center of Tours, France, from January 1, 2007, to August 1, 2018. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of hormonal receptors (estrogen, progesterone, androgens). We obtained 51 samples from 51 patients: 13 cystic lymphatic malformations (CLMs), 16 venous malformations (VeMs), 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), 4 combined VMs, 4 PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome, 1 Gorham syndrome, and 1 multiple lymphangioendotheliomatosis with thrombopenia. In total, 38 (74.5%) samples were positive for androgen receptor: 11 (84.6%) CLMs, 12 (75.0%) VeMs, 8 (72.2%) AVMs, and 7/11 (63.5%) other samples. All samples were negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Triggering factors were self-reported in 7 cases and were most frequently hormonal changes (n = 6, 18.2%). Hormonal triggers were frequent in AVMs (n = 4). Among patients with identified hormonal triggers, VM samples were positive for androgen receptor in 3 and negative in 3. Three-quarters of our VM samples expressed androgen receptor, and most CLM, VeM, and AVM samples were positive. Hormonal triggers were identified in 6/33 patients, mostly with AVMs.
KeywordsVascular malformations Hormonal receptors Androgen receptors Hormonal triggers
We thank Dr. M. Dorbeau for the H&E images.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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