Hormonal receptors in cutaneous vascular malformations: 51 cases

  • Sarah VentéjouEmail author
  • M.-C. Machet
  • D. Herbreteau
  • A. le Touze
  • G. Lorette
  • A. Maruani
Original Article


Vascular malformations (VMs) are rare congenital anomalies that develop during embryogenesis in different types of vessels. Several triggering factors of cutaneous VMs include trauma, infections, or hormonal changes. We investigated the expression of hormonal receptors (androgen, estrogen, progesterone) in tissue samples of well-characterized VMs. A secondary objective was to identify self-reported triggering factors for these VMs, including hormonal changes, in the cohort of patients. We included patients with VM samples obtained in the tertiary center for vascular anomalies of the University Hospital Center of Tours, France, from January 1, 2007, to August 1, 2018. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of hormonal receptors (estrogen, progesterone, androgens). We obtained 51 samples from 51 patients: 13 cystic lymphatic malformations (CLMs), 16 venous malformations (VeMs), 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), 4 combined VMs, 4 PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome, 1 Gorham syndrome, and 1 multiple lymphangioendotheliomatosis with thrombopenia. In total, 38 (74.5%) samples were positive for androgen receptor: 11 (84.6%) CLMs, 12 (75.0%) VeMs, 8 (72.2%) AVMs, and 7/11 (63.5%) other samples. All samples were negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Triggering factors were self-reported in 7 cases and were most frequently hormonal changes (n = 6, 18.2%). Hormonal triggers were frequent in AVMs (n = 4). Among patients with identified hormonal triggers, VM samples were positive for androgen receptor in 3 and negative in 3. Three-quarters of our VM samples expressed androgen receptor, and most CLM, VeM, and AVM samples were positive. Hormonal triggers were identified in 6/33 patients, mostly with AVMs.


Vascular malformations Hormonal receptors Androgen receptors Hormonal triggers 



We thank Dr. M. Dorbeau for the H&E images.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
corrected publication 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Ventéjou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M.-C. Machet
    • 1
    • 3
  • D. Herbreteau
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. le Touze
    • 5
    • 6
  • G. Lorette
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • A. Maruani
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.University of ToursToursFrance
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity Hospital Center (CHRU) of ToursTours CEDEX 9France
  3. 3.Department of PathologyUniversity Hospital Center (CHRU) of ToursToursFrance
  4. 4.Department of NeuroradiologyUniversity Hospital Center (CHRU) of ToursToursFrance
  5. 5.Reference Center for Rare Dermatologic Diseases (MAGEC) - Vascular Malformations and MosaicismCHRU ToursToursFrance
  6. 6.Department of Pediatric SurgeryUniversity Hospital Center (CHRU) of ToursToursFrance

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