Virchows Archiv

, Volume 473, Issue 2, pp 229–234 | Cite as

Duodenal histological features in suspected non-celiac gluten sensitivity: new insights into a still undefined condition

  • Barbara Zanini
  • Vincenzo Villanacci
  • Monica Marullo
  • Moris Cadei
  • Francesco Lanzarotto
  • Anna Bozzola
  • Chiara Ricci
Brief Report


Since the late seventies, when gluten-related disorders were first described, up to nowadays, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCGS/NCWS) is still a not well-defined clinical entity.

Epidemiological data are inconsistent providing a wide range of prevalence from 0.5 to 13% in Western countries [1]. The clinical spectrum of this condition is characterized by the presence, in different association, of gastrointestinal (especially bloating and abdominal pain/discomfort with or without alteration in bowel movement) and extra-intestinal symptoms (fatigue, headache, joint pain, foggy mind, and so forth) with a wide overlap of its presentation with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), other functional gastrointestinal disorders, and other organic etiologies such as bacterial or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

In June 2015, Salerno Experts’ criteria were published with the proposal of a double (or...


Compliance with ethical standards

The authors declare that the study has been done according to ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical responsibilities of authors section

All the authors are qualified for the following criteria:

• Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;

• Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;

• Final approval of the version to be published; and

• Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental SciencesUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Pathology Spedali CiviliBresciaItaly

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