Action compatibility in spatial knowledge developed through virtual navigation
Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval. The present study provides a more controlled and in-depth examination of how individual differences and task-based factors interact to shape ACEs when participants retrieve spatial memories. In two experiments, participants with varied video game experience learned a virtual environment and then used the computer mouse to verify spatial relationships from different perspectives. Mouse trajectories demonstrated ACEs, differing by retrieval perspective and video game experience. Videogame experts demonstrated the ACE based on learned spatial relationships during egocentric retrieval only, whereas videogame novices showed the ACE based on semantic processing of directional terms only. Specifically, gaming experts invoke perspective-specific perceptuo-motor associations to retrieve spatial knowledge, whereas non-experts are influenced by semantically based associations specific to the retrieval task. Results are discussed in the context of action-compatibility effects, the intentional weighting hypothesis, and the flexible encoding and retrieval of spatial information.
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31,400,865).
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in present studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
All participants gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Brunye, T.,T., Ditman, T., Mahoney, C. R., Augustyn, J. S., & Taylor, H. A. (2009). When you and I share perspectives: Pronouns modulate perspective taking during narrative comprehension. Psychological Science, 20(1), 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02249.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Friedman, A., & Montello, D. R. (2006). Global-scale location and distance estimates: Common representations and strategies in absolute and relative judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(2), 333–346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Glenberg, A. M., Lopez-Mobilia, G., McBeath, M., Toma, M., Sato, M., & Cattaneo, L. (2010). Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4 https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2010.00204.
- Hommel, B. (2017). Goal-directed actions. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning, p. 265.Google Scholar
- Levinson, S. C. (1996). Frames of reference and molyneux’s question: Crosslinguistic evidence. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Li, H., & Giudice, N. A. (2013). The Effects of Immersion and Body-based Rotation on Learning Multi-level Indoor Virtual Environments. Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGSPATIAL International Workshop on Indoor Spatial Awareness - ISA’13, 8–15. https://doi.org/10.1145/2533810.2533811.
- Longo, M. R., & Lourenco, S. F. (2007). Spatial attention and the mental number line: Evidence for characteristic biases and compression. Neuropsychologia,. 45(7), 1400–1407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.11.002.
- Montello, D. R., Waller, D., Hegarty, M., & Richardson, A. E. (2004). Spatial memory of real environments, virtual environments, and maps. Human spatial memory: Remembering where, 251–285.Google Scholar
- Munafo, J., Diedrick, M., & Stoffregen, T. A. (2016). The virtual reality head-mounted display Oculus Rift induces motion sickness and is sexist in its effects. Experimental Brain Research, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-016-4846-7.
- Richardson, A. E., Montello, D. R., & Hegarty, M. (1999). Spatial knowledge acquisition from maps and from navigation in real and virtual environments.. Memory & Cognition, 27(4), 741 – 50. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211566.
- Richardson, D. C., Dale, R., & Spivey, M. J. (2007). Eye movements in language and cognition: A brief introduction. In M. Gonzalez-Marquez, I. Mittelberg, S. Coulson & M. J. Spivey (Eds.), Methods in cognitive linguistics (pp. 323–344). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rizzolatti, G., & Craighero, L. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169–192. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Santos, S. B., Dias, P., Pimentel, A., Baggerman, J. W., Ferreira, C., Silva, S., & Madeira, J. (2009). Head-mounted display versus desktop for 3D navigation in virtual reality: A user study. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 41(1), 161–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-008-0223-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spivey, M., Richardson, D., & Dale, R. (2009). The movement of eye and hand as a window into language and cognition. In E. Morsella, J. A. Bargh & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), (pp. 225–249). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Tversky, B. (2005). How to get around by mind and body: Spatial thought, spatial action. In A. Zilhao (Ed.), Cognition, evolution, and rationality: A cognitive science for the XXIst century. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Willemsen, P., Colton, M. B., Creem-Regehr, S., & Thompson, W. B. (2009). The effects of head-mounted display mechanical properties and field of view on distance judgments in virtual environments. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 6(2) https://doi.org/10.1145/1498700.1498702.
- Mizell, D. W., Jones, S. P., Slater, M., & Spanlang, B. (2002). Comparing immersive virtual reality with other display modes for visualizing complex 3D geometry. University College London, technical report. doi: 10.1.1.99.5391&rep=rep1&type=pdf.Google Scholar