Task intentions and their implementation into actions: cognitive control from adolescence to middle adulthood
- 252 Downloads
Cognitive control processes involved in human multitasking arise, mature, and decline across age. This study investigated how age modulates cognitive control at two different levels: the level of task intentions and the level of the implementation of intentions into the corresponding actions. We were particularly interested in specifying maturation of voluntary task choice (intentions) and task-switching execution (their implementations) between adolescence and middle adulthood. Seventy-four participants were assigned to one of the four age groups (adolescents, 12–17 years; emerging adults, 18–22 years; young adults, 23–27 years; middle-aged adults, 28–56 years). Participants chose between two simple cognitive tasks at the beginning of each trial before pressing a spacebar to indicate that the task choice was made. Next, a stimulus was presented in one of the three adjacent boxes, with participants identifying either the location or the shape of the stimulus, depending on their task choice. This voluntary task-switching paradigm allowed us to investigate the intentional component (task choice) separately from its implementation (task execution). Although all participants showed a tendency to repeat tasks more often than switching between them, this repetition bias was significantly stronger in adolescents than in any adult group. Furthermore, participants generally responded slower after task switches than after task repetitions. This switch cost was similar across tasks in the two younger groups but larger for the shape than the location task in the two older groups. Together, our results demonstrate that both task intentions and their implementation into actions differ across age in quite specific ways.
We thank Vincent Hoofs and Vera van ‘t Hoff for their tremendous help with data collection. Further, we thank Lea Ueberholz for her help with figures and tables and Lisa Hüther for proofreading the manuscript. Edita Poljac and Andrea Kiesel were supported by a Grant awarded to Andrea Kiesel within the Priority Program, SPP 1772 from the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG), Grant No. Ki1388-/7-1. Rianne Haartsen was supported by a grant from the European Community’s Horizon 2020 Program under Grant Agreement No. 642996 (BRAINVIEW). Ervin Poljac was supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie mobility programme of the EU FP7 (REA Grant Agreement No. 624080).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare to have no conflict of interest. We agree to allow the journal to review the (raw) data if requested.
All procedures performed in the present study involve human participants and were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional, national research committee, and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standard.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants (and both their parents for the minors) included in the study.
- Allport, A., Styles, E. A., & Hsieh, S. L. (1994). Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tasks. In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance XV: Conscious and unconscious information processing (pp. 421–452). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Clapp, W. C., Rubens, M. T., Sabharwal, J., & Gazzaley, A. (2011). Deficit in switching between functional brain networks underlies the impact of multitasking on working memory in older adults. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(17), 7212–7217. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1015297108.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Cohen, A. O., Breiner, K., Steinberg, L., Bonnie, R. J., Scott, E. S., Taylor-Thompson, K., & Casey, B. J. (2016). When Is an adolescent an adult? Assessing cognitive control in emotional and nonemotional contexts. Psychological Science, 27(4), 549–562. doi: 10.1177/0956797615627625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gollan, T. H., & Ferreira, V. S. (2009). Should I stay or should I switch? A cost–benefit analysis of voluntary language switching in young and aging bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35(3), 640–665. doi: 10.1037/a0014981.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hübner, M., Kluwe, R. H., Luna-Rodriguez, A., & Peters, A. (2004). Response selection difficulty and asymmetrical costs of switching between tasks and stimuli: No evidence for an exogenous component of task-set reconfiguration. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30(6), 1043–1063. doi: 10.1037/0096-15188.8.131.523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kievit, R. A., Davis, S. W., Mitchell, D. J., Taylor, J. R., Duncan, J., & Henson, R. N. A. (2014). Distinct aspects of frontal lobe structure mediate age-related differences in fluid intelligence and multitasking. Nature Communications, 5, 5658. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6658.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Manzi, A., Nessler, D., Czernochowski, D., & Friedman, D. (2011). The development of anticipatory cognitive control processes in task-switching: An ERP study in children, adolescents and young adults. Psychophysiology, 48(9), 1258–1275. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01192.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Meiran, N., Gotler, A., & Perlman, A. (2001). Old age is associated with a pattern of relatively intact and relatively impaired task-set switching abilities. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(2), 88–102. doi: 10.1093/geronb/56.2.P88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zanolie, K., & Crone, E. A. (2017). Development of cognitive control across childhood and adolescence. In J. Wixted (Ed.), The Stevens’ handbook of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience (Vol. 3). New York: Wiley. (in press).Google Scholar