Phytochemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oils from herbal plants
The essential oils (EOs) of Plectranthus amboinicus showed the highest larvicidal activity among four herbal plants studied and β-caryophyllene might be the major component responsible for its differential toxicity to the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes Aegypti.
Mosquitoes act as vectors for many life-threatening diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, and Zika virus infection. Management of mosquitoes mainly relies on synthetic insecticides, which usually result in the rapid development of resistance; therefore, alternative mosquito control strategies are urgently needed. This study characterized the major component of essential oils (EOs) derived from the vegetative parts of four herbal plants and their larvicidal activity toward important mosquito vectors. The EOs were extracted by hydro-distillation and subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and a larvicidal activity assay toward Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. In total, 14, 11, 11 and 9 compounds were identified from the EOs of Plectranthus amboinicus, Mentha requienii, Vitex rotundifolia and Crossostephium chinense, respectively. The EOs derived from four herbal plants exhibited remarkable larvicidal activity against the three mosquito species. In particular, the EOs of P. amboinicus showed the highest larvicidal activity, and the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more sensitive to the P. amboinicus EOs than that of Ae. Aegypti. Although carvacrol (61.53%) was the predominant constituent of the P. amboinicus EOs, its precursors, γ-terpinene (8.51%) and p-cymene (9.42%), exhibited the most larvicidal activity toward Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, β-caryophyllene (12.79%) might be the major component responsible for the differential toxicity of the P. amboinicus EOs, as indicated by the significant differences in its LC50 values toward both mosquitoes. Information from these studies will benefit the incorporation of EOs into integrated vector management.
KeywordsVector control Essential oils Larvicide β-Caryophyllene
We would like to thanks American Journal Experts for helping on the grammar editing of this manuscript. Funding for this research was provided by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 106-2321-B-002-037), The Executive Yuan, Taiwan, R.O.C. are kindly acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Adams RP (2017) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 5th edn. Texensis Publishing, GruverGoogle Scholar
- Aguiar JJS, Sousa CPB, Araruna MKA, Silva MKN, Portelo AC, Lopes JC, Carvalho VRA, Figueredo FG, Bitu VCN, Coutinho HDM, Miranda TAS, Matias EFF (2015) Antibacterial and modifying-antibiotic activities of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus L. Eur J Integr Med 7(2):151–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2014.10.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Benelli G, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Senthilmurugan S, Vijayan P, Alharbi NS, Kadaikunnan S, Khaled JM (2017) Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate. Parasitol Res 116(4):1175–1188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5395-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gerberg EJ (1979) Manual for mosquito rearing and experimental techniques (bulletin No 5). American Mosquito Control Association, Selma, pp 7–26Google Scholar
- Govindarajan M, Benelli G (2016) alpha-Humulene and beta-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 115(7):2771–2778. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5025-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Yogalakshmi K (2013) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol 134(1):7–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2013.01.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Hoti SL, Bhattacharyya A, Benelli G (2016) Eugenol, alpha-pinene and beta-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. Parasitol Res 115(2):807–815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4809-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gurgel AP, da Silva JG, Grangeiro AR, Oliveira DC, Lima CM, da Silva AC, Oliveira RA, Souza IA (2009) In vivo study of the anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities of leaves from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng (Lamiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 125(2):361–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.07.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu Y, Zhang QY, Xin HL, Qin LP, Lu BR, Rahman K, Zheng HC (2007b) Association between chemical and genetic variation of Vitex rotundifolia populations from different locations in China: its implication for quality control of medicinal plants. Biomed Chromatogr 21(9):967–975. https://doi.org/10.1002/bmc.841 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu Y, Zhu Y, Zhang QY, Xin HL, Qin LP, Lu BR, Rahman K, Zheng HC (2008) Population genetic structure of the medicinal plant Vitex rotundifolia in China: implications for its use and conservation. J Integr Plant Biol 50(9):1118–1129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00635.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jayaraman M, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V (2015) Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. Parasitol Res 114(4):1511–1518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-015-4335-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lessler J, Chaisson LH, Kucirka LM, Bi Q, Grantz K, Salje H, Carcelen AC, Ott CT, Sheffield JS, Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Metcalf CJ, Rodriguez-Barraquer I (2016) Assessing the global threat from Zika virus. Science 353(6300):aaf8160. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf8160 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Regnault-Roger C, Vincent C, Arnason JT (2012) Essential oils in insect control: low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Annu Rev Entomol 57:405–424. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120710-100554 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V (2010) Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito. Parasitol Res 107(5):1275–1278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1996-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tabari MA, Youssefi MR, Esfandiari A, Benelli G (2017) Toxicity of beta-citronellol, geraniol and linalool from Pelargonium roseum essential oil against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Res Vet Sci 114:36–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vijayakumar S, Vinoj G, Malaikozhundan B, Shanthi S, Vaseeharan B (2015) Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 137:886–891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.08.064 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang B, Liu L, Zhao S, Wang X, Liu L, Li S (2013) Vitexicarpin acts as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor and its target network. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013:278405Google Scholar