Galactan turnover occurs during cell elongation and affects the cell wall xyloglucan structure which is involved in the interaction between cellulose and xyloglucan.
β-(1,4)-Galactan is one of the main side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I. Although the specific function of this polymer has not been completely established, it has been related to different developmental processes. To study β-(1,4)-galactan function, we have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing chickpea βI-Gal β-galactosidase under the 35S CaMV promoter (35S::βI-Gal) to reduce galactan side chains in muro. Likewise, an Arabidopsis double loss-of-function mutant for BGAL1 and BGAL3 Arabidopsis β-galactosidases (bgal1/bgal3) has been obtained to increase galactan levels. The characterization of these plants has confirmed the role of β-(1,4)-galactan in cell growth, and demonstrated that the turnover of this pectic side chain occurs during cell elongation, at least in Arabidopsis etiolated hypocotyls and floral stem internodes. The results indicate that BGAL1 and BGAL3 β-galactosidases act in a coordinate way during cell elongation. In addition, this work indicates that galactan plays a role in the maintenance of the cell wall architecture during this process. Our results point to an involvement of the β-(1,4)-galactan in the xyloglucan structure and the interaction between cellulose and xyloglucan.
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The work was founding by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) (BFU2013-44793-P) and for the Junta de Castilla-León (SA027G18). M. Moneo-Sánchez was supported by Programa Predoctoral de Formación de Personal Investigador grant from the Basque Government. Generation of the CCRC series of monoclonal antibodies used in this work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Plant Genome Program (DBI-0421683).
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Moneo-Sánchez, M., Alonso-Chico, A., Knox, J.P. et al. β-(1,4)-Galactan remodelling in Arabidopsis cell walls affects the xyloglucan structure during elongation. Planta 249, 351–362 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-3008-5