, Volume 248, Issue 6, pp 1487–1503 | Cite as

Tomato MYB49 enhances resistance to Phytophthora infestans and tolerance to water deficit and salt stress

  • Jun Cui
  • Ning Jiang
  • Xiaoxu Zhou
  • Xinxin Hou
  • Guanglei Yang
  • Jun MengEmail author
  • Yushi LuanEmail author
Original Article


Main conclusion

MYB49-overexpressing tomato plants showed significant resistance to Phytophthora infestans and tolerance to drought and salt stresses. This finding reveals the potential application of tomato MYB49 in future molecular breeding.

Biotic and abiotic stresses severely reduce the productivity of tomato worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to find key genes to simultaneously improve plant resistance to pathogens and tolerance to various abiotic stresses. In this study, based on homologous relationships with Arabidopsis R2R3-MYBs (AtMYBs) involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, we identified a total of 24 R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the tomato genome. Among these tomato R2R3-MYBs, MYB49 (Solyc10g008700.1) was clustered into subgroup 11 by phylogenetic analysis, and its expression level was significantly induced after treatment with P. infestans, NaCl and PEG6000. Overexpression of MYB49 in tomato significantly enhanced the resistance of tomato to P. infestans, as evidenced by decreases in the number of necrotic cells, sizes of lesion, abundance of P. infestans, and disease index. Likewise, MYB49-overexpressing transgenic tomato plants also displayed increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Compared to WT plants, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonaldehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage was decreased, and peroxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate were increased in MYB49-overexpressing tomato plants under P. infestans, salt or drought stress. These results suggested that tomato MYB49, as a positive regulator, could enhance the capacity to scavenge ROS, inhibit cell membrane damage and cell death, and protect chloroplasts, resulting in an improvement in resistance to P. infestans and tolerance to salt and drought stresses, and they provide a candidate gene for tomato breeding to enhance biotic stress resistance and abiotic stress tolerance.


Biotic and abiotic stresses MYB Resistance Tolerance Tomato 



Days’ postinoculation






Relative electrolyte leakage


Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase


Transcription factor



This work is supported by Grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 31471880 and 61472061).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

425_2018_2987_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (434 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 434 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (3.9 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 3966 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (66 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 66 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (349 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 349 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (404 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 403 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (279 kb)
Supplementary material 6 (PDF 279 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM7_ESM.pdf (452 kb)
Supplementary material 7 (PDF 451 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM8_ESM.pdf (352 kb)
Supplementary material 8 (PDF 351 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM9_ESM.pdf (449 kb)
Supplementary material 9 (PDF 448 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Supplementary material 10 (XLSX 10 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM11_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Supplementary material 11 (XLSX 10 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM12_ESM.xlsx (9 kb)
Supplementary material 12 (XLSX 9 kb)
425_2018_2987_MOESM13_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Supplementary material 13 (XLSX 9 kb)


  1. Abuqamar S, Luo H, Laluk K, Mickelbart MV, Mengiste T (2009) Crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress responses in tomato is mediated by the AIM1 transcription factor. Plant J 58:347–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambawat S, Sharma P, Yadav NR, Yadav RC (2013) MYB transcription factor genes as regulators for plant responses: an overview. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 19:307–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baier M, Dietz KJ (2005) Chloroplasts as source and target of cellular redox regulation: a discussion on chloroplast redox signals in the context of plant physiology. J Exp Bot 56:1449–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berrocal-Lobo M, Molina A (2004) Ethylene response factor 1 mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:763–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhattarai K, Louws FJ, Williamson JD, Panthee DR (2016) Differential response of tomato genotypes to Xanthomonas-specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and correlation with bacterial spot (Xanthomonas perforans) resistance. Hortic Res 3:16035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Butt HI, Yang Z, Gong Q, Chen E, Wang X, Zhao G, Ge X, Zhang X, Li F (2017) GaMYB85, an R2R3 MYB gene, in transgenic Arabidopsis plays an important role in drought tolerance. BMC Plant Biol 17:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao ZH, Zhang SZ, Wang RK, Zhang RF, Hao YJ (2013) Genome wide analysis of the apple MYB transcription factor family allows the identification of MdoMYB121 gene confering abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PLoS One 8:e69955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen B, Wang Y, Hu T, Wu Q, Lin Z (2005) Cloning and characterization of a drought inducible MYB gene from Boea crassifolia. Plant Sci 168:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen S, Niu X, Guan Y, Li H (2017) Genome-wide analysis and expression profiles of the MYB genes in Brachypodium distachyon. Plant Cell Physiol 58:1777–1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choudhury FK, Rivero RM, Blumwald E, Mittler R (2017) Reactive oxygen species, abiotic stress and stress combination. Plant J 90:856–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cui J, Luan Y, Jiang N, Bao H, Meng J (2017) Comparative transcriptome analysis between resistant and susceptible tomato allows the identification of lncRNA16397 conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans by co-expressing glutaredoxin. Plant J 89:577–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cui J, Xu P, Meng J, Li J, Jiang N, Luan Y (2018) Transcriptome signatures of tomato leaf induced by Phytophthora infestans and functional identification of transcription factor SpWRKY3. Theor Appl Genet 131:787–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Vos M, Denekamp M, Dicke M, Vuylsteke M, Van Loon L, Smeekens SC, Pieterse CM (2006) The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor AtMYB102 functions in defense against the insect herbivore Pieris rapae. Plant Signal Behav 1:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Denekamp M, Smeekens SC (2003) Integration of wounding and osmotic stress signals determines the expression of the AtMYB102 transcription factor gene. Plant Physiol 132:1415–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Derksen H, Rampitsch C, Daayf F (2013) Signaling cross-talk in plant disease resistance. Plant Sci 207:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Du H, Feng BR, Yang SS, Huang YB, Tang YX (2012a) The R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in maize. PLoS One 7:e37463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Du H, Yang SS, Liang Z, Feng BR, Liu L, Huang YB, Tang YX (2012b) Genome-wide analysis of the MYB transcription factor superfamily in soybean. BMC Plant Biol 12:106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dubos C, Stracke R, Grotewold E, Weisshaar B, Martin C, Lepiniec L (2010) MYB transcription factors in Arabidopsis. Trends Plant Sci 15:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feller A, Machemer K, Braun EL, Grotewold E (2011) Evolutionary and comparative analysis of MYB and bHLH plant transcription factors. Plant J 66:94–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gahlaut V, Jaiswal V, Kumar A, Gupta PK (2016) Transcription factors involved in drought tolerance and their possible role in developing drought tolerant cultivars with emphasis on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 129:2019–2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao F, Zhou J, Deng RY, Zhao HX, Li CL, Chen H, Suzuki T, Park SU, Wu Q (2017) Overexpression of a tartary buckwheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, FtMYB9, enhances tolerance to drought and salt stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis. J Plant Physiol 214:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garg G (2010) Response in germination and seedling growth in Phaseolus mungo under salt and drought stress. J Environ Biol 31:261–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerszberg A, Hnatuszko-Konka K (2017) Tomato tolerance to abiotic stress: a review of most often engineered target sequences. Plant Growth Regul 83:175–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Golldack D, Li C, Mohan H, Probst N (2014) Tolerance to drought and salt stress in plants: unraveling the signaling networks. Front Plant Sci 5:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoang MH, Nguyen XC, Lee K, Kwon YS, Pham HT, Park HC, Yun DJ, Lim CO, Chung WS (2012) Phosphorylation by AtMPK6 is required for the biological function of AtMYB41 in Arabidopsis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 422:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Höfgen R, Willmitzer L (1988) Storage of competent cells for Agrobacterium transformation. Nucl Acids Res 16:9877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu B, Jin J, Guo AY, Zhang H, Luo J, Gao G (2015) GSDS 2.0: an upgraded gene feature visualization server. Bioinformatics 31:1296–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ijaz R, Ejaz J, Gao S, Liu T, Imtiaz M, Ye Z, Wang T (2017) Overexpression of annexin gene AnnSp2, enhances drought and salt tolerance through modulation of ABA synthesis and scavenging ROS in tomato. Sci Rep 7:12087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeong JS, Kim YS, Baek KH, Jung H, Ha SH, Do Choi Y, Kim M, Reuzeau C, Kim JK (2010) Root-specific expression of OsNAC10 improves drought tolerance and grain yield in rice under field drought conditions. Plant Physiol 153:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jiang C, Gu X, Peterson T (2004) Identification of conserved gene structures and carboxy-terminal motifs in the Myb gene family of Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. Genome Biol 5:R46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jiang N, Meng J, Cui J, Sun G, Luan Y (2018) Function identification of miR482b, a negative regulator during tomato resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Hortic Res 5:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khare N, Goyary D, Singh NK, Shah P, Rathore M, Anandhan S, Sharma D, Arif M, Ahmed Z (2010) Transgenic tomato cv. Pusa Uphar expressing a bacterial mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene confers abiotic stress tolerance. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 103:267–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumar SA, Kumari PH, Jawahar G, Prashanth S, Suravajhala P, Katam R, Sivan P, Rao KS, Kirti PB, Kishor PBK (2016) Beyond just being foot soldiers-osmotin like protein (OLP) and chitinase (Chi11) genes act as sentinels to confront salt, drought, and fungal stress tolerance in tomato. Environ Exp Bot 132:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lescot M, Déhais P, Thijs G, Marchal K, Moreau Y, Van de Peer Y, Rouzé P, Rombauts S (2002) PlantCARE, a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements and a portal to tools for in silico analysis of promoter sequences. Nucl Acids Res 30:325–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Letunic I, Doerks T, Bork P (2015) SMART: recent updates, new developments and status in 2015. Nucl Acids Res 43:D257–D260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li L, Yu X, Thompson A, Guo M, Yoshida S, Asami T, Chory J, Yin Y (2009) Arabidopsis MYB30 is a direct target of BES1 and cooperates with BES1 to regulate brassinosteroid-induced gene expression. Plant J 58:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li JB, Luan YS, Yin YL (2014) SpMYB overexpression in tobacco plants leads to altered abiotic and biotic stress responses. Gene 547:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li J, Luan Y, Liu Z (2015) SpWRKY1 mediates resistance to Phytophthora infestans and tolerance to salt and drought stress by modulating reactive oxygen species homeostasis and expression of defense-related genes in tomato. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 123:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lippold F, Sanchez DH, Musialak M, Schlereth A, Scheible WR, Hincha DK, Udvardi MK (2009) AtMyb41 regulates transcriptional and metabolic responses to osmotic stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 149:1761–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu R, Meng J (2003) MapDraw: a Microsoft excel macro for drawing genetic linkage maps based on given genetic linkage data. Yichuan 25:317–321Google Scholar
  41. Liu C, Wang X, Xu Y, Deng X, Xu Q (2014) Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). Mol Biol Rep 41:6769–6785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu H, Yu CY, Li HX, Ouyang B, Wang TT, Zhang JH, Wang X, Ye ZB (2015) Overexpression of ShDHN, a dehydrin gene from Solanum habrochaites enhances tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in tomato. Plant Sci 231:198–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu Z, Luan Y, Yin Y (2016) Expression of a tomato MYB gene in transgenic tobacco increases resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea. Eur J Plant Pathol 144:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu Y, Huang W, Xian Z, Hu N, Lin D, Ren H, Chen J, Su D, Li Z (2017) Overexpression of SlGRAS40 in tomato enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses and influences auxin and gibberellin signaling. Front Plant Sci 8:1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luan Y, Cui J, Wang W, Meng J (2016) MiR1918 enhances tomato sensitivity to Phytophthora infestans infection. Sci Rep 6:35858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Luan Y, Cui J, Li J, Jiang N, Liu P, Meng J (2018) Effective enhancement of resistance to Phytophthora infestans by overexpression of miR172a and b in Solanum lycopersicum. Planta 247:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mito T, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Ohme-Takagi M, Matsui K (2011) Generation of chimeric repressors that confer salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and rice. Plant Biotechnol J 9:736–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ogata K, Hojo H, Aimoto S, Nakai T, Nakamura H, Sarai A, Ishii S, Nishimura Y (1992) Solution structure of a DNA-binding unit of Myb: a helix-turn-helix-related motif with conserved tryptophans forming a hydrophobic core. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:6428–6432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paz-Ares J, Ghosal D, Wienand U, Peterson PA, Saedler H (1987) The regulatory c1 locus of Zea mays encodes a protein with homology to myb proto-oncogene products and with structural similarities to transcriptional activators. EMBO J 6:3553–3558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prabu G, Prasad DT (2012) Functional characterization of sugarcane MYB transcription factor gene promoter (PScMYBAS1) in response to abiotic stresses and hormones. Plant Cell Rep 31:661–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schultz J, Milpetz F, Bork P, Ponting CP (1998) SMART, a simple modular architecture research tool: identification of signaling domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:5857–5864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Segarra G, Van der Ent S, Trillas I, Pieterse CM (2009) MYB72, a node of convergence in induced systemic resistance triggered by a fungal and a bacterial beneficial microbe. Plant Biol (Stuttg) 11:90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shen X, Guo X, Guo X, Zhao D, Zhao W, Chen J, Li T (2017) PacMYBA, a sweet cherry R2R3-MYB transcription factor, is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance. Plant Physiol Biochem 112:302–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shukla PS, Gupta K, Agarwal P, Jha B, Agarwal PK (2015) Overexpression of a novel SbMYB15 from Salicornia brachiata confers salinity and dehydration tolerance by reduced oxidative damage and improved photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco. Planta 242:1291–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sigrist CJ, de Castro E, Cerutti L, Cuche BA, Hulo N, Bridge A, Bougueleret L, Xenarios I (2013) New and continuing developments at PROSITE. Nucl Acids Res 41:D344–D347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Soler M, Camargo EL, Carocha V, Cassan-Wang H, San Clemente H, Savelli B, Hefer CA, Paiva JA, Myburg AA, Grima-Pettenati J (2015) The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function. New Phytol 206:1364–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stracke R, Werber M, Weisshaar B (2001) The R2R3-MYB gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Su LT, Li JW, Liu DQ, Zhai Y, Zhang HJ, Li XW, Zhang QL, Wang Y, Wang QY (2014) A novel MYB transcription factor, GmMYBJ1, from soybean confers drought and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene 538:46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sun Y, Wang B, Jin S, Qu X, Li Y, Hou B (2013) Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase UGT85A5 enhances salt stress tolerance in tobacco. PLoS One 8:e59924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Suzuki N, Koussevitzky S, Mittler R, Miller G (2012) ROS and redox signalling in the response of plants to abiotic stress. Plant, Cell Environ 35:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Van der Ent S, Verhagen BW, Van Doorn R, Bakker D, Verlaan MG, Pel MJ, Joosten RG, Proveniers MC, Van Loon LC, Ton J, Pieterse CM (2008) MYB72 is required in early signaling steps of rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 146:1293–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang Z, Tang J, Hu R, Wu P, Hou XL, Song XM, Xiong AS (2015) Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) reveals their stress and hormone responsive patterns. BMC Genomics 16:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang L, Zhao R, Li R, Yu W, Yang M, Sheng J, Shen L (2018) Enhanced drought tolerance in tomato plants by overexpression of SlMAPK1. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 133:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wilkins O, Nahal H, Foong J, Provart NJ, Campbell MM (2009) Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors. Plant Physiol 149:981–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wu Q, Hu Y, Sprague SA, Kakeshpour T, Park J, Nakata PA, Cheng N, Hirschi KD, White FF, Park S (2017) Expression of a monothiol glutaredoxin, AtGRXS17, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enhances drought tolerance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 491:1034–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xiang Y, Tang N, Du H, Ye H, Xiong L (2008) Characterization of OsbZIP23 as a key player of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family for conferring abscisic acid sensitivity and salinity and drought tolerance in rice. Plant Physiol 148:1938–1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Xiong H, Li J, Liu P, Duan J, Zhao Y, Guo X, Li Y, Zhang H, Ali J, Li Z (2014) Overexpression of OsMYB48-1, a novel MYB-related transcription factor, enhances drought and salinity tolerance in rice. PLoS One 9:e92913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Xu R, Wang Y, Zheng H, Lu W, Wu C, Huang J, Yan K, Yang G, Zheng C (2015) Salt-induced transcription factor MYB74 is regulated by the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 66:5997–6008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yu Q, Chen C, Du D, Huang M, Yao J, Yu F, Brlansky RH, Gmitter FG Jr (2017) Reprogramming of a defense signaling pathway in rough lemon and sweet orange is a critical element of the early response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Hortic Res 4:17063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang Z, Liu X, Wang X, Zhou M, Zhou X, Ye X, Wei X (2012) An R2R3 MYB transcription factor in wheat, TaPIMP1, mediates host resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana and drought stresses through regulation of defense- and stress-related genes. New Phytol 196:1155–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhang C, Liu L, Wang X, Vossen J, Li G, Li T, Zheng Z, Gao J, Guo Y, Visser RG, Li J, Bai Y, Du Y (2014a) The Ph-3 gene from Solanum pimpinellifolium encodes CC-NBS-LRR protein conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Theor Appl Genet 127:1353–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang L, Liu G, Zhao G, Xia C, Jia J, Liu X, Kong X (2014b) Characterization of a wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, TaMYB19, involved in enhanced abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol 55:1802–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhang H, Huang L, Dai Y, Liu S, Hong Y, Tian L, Huang L, Cao Z, Li D, Song F (2015) Arabidopsis AtERF15 positively regulates immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea. Front. Plant Sci 6:686Google Scholar
  74. Zhang C, Ma R, Xu J, Yan J, Guo L, Song J, Feng R, Yu M (2018) Genome-wide identification and classification of MYB superfamily genes in peach. PLoS One 13:e0199192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhao P, Li Q, Li J, Wang L, Ren Z (2014) Genome-wide identification and characterization of R2R3MYB family in Solanum lycopersicum. Mol Genet Genomics 289:1183–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhu N, Cheng S, Liu X, Du H, Dai M, Zhou DX, Yang W, Zhao Y (2015) The R2R3-type MYB gene OsMYB91 has a function in coordinating plant growth and salt stress tolerance in rice. Plant Sci 236:146–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life Science and BiotechnologyDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina
  2. 2.School of Computer Science and TechnologyDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina

Personalised recommendations