Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes (ARGs) in grapevine and plant tolerance to copper stress
Grapevine autophagy-related genes (ARGs) include 35 members that have unique evolutionary backgrounds and expression patterns, with some of them responding to abiotic stresses, including copper stress.
Autophagy is one of the most crucial self-regulating phenomena in livings organisms, including animals, plants, yeasts, etc. In the genomes of plants, like Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, and barley, more than 30 autophagy-related genes (ARGs) have been found. These ARGs are involved in plant development, programed cell death, and the stress response process. In plants, and particularly in grapevine, high copper stress results from the application of the Bordeaux mixture, a widely used fungicide. However, the function of autophagy in plant tolerance to copper stress is unknown. Accordingly, in this study, a genome-wide analysis was performed to identify Vitis vinifera ARGs (VvARGs), and 35 VvARGs were detected. A gene family analysis revealed that the tandem and segmental duplication events played significant roles in the VvARG gene family expansion. Moreover, there was more intense signature of purifying selection for the comparison between grape and rice than between grape and Arabidopsis. In response to copper treatment, both the autophagosome number and malondialdehyde concentration increased during the initial 4 h post-treatment, and reached maximal values at 24 h. An expression analysis indicated that most VvARGs responded to copper stress at 4 h post-treatment, and some VvARGs (e.g., VvATG6, VvATG8i, and VvATG18h) exhibited responses to most abiotic stresses. These results provide a detailed overview of the ARGs in grapevine and indicate multiple functions of autophagy in fruit development and abiotic stresses in grapevine. The key ARG (e.g., ATG8i) should be investigated in more detail in grapevine and other plant species.
KeywordsGrapevine Autophagy Copper stress VvARGs Autophagosome
Non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site
Synonymous substitutions per synonymous site
Reads per kilobase per million mapped reads
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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