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Planta

, Volume 247, Issue 5, pp 1163–1173 | Cite as

FlowerMorphology: fully automatic flower morphometry software

  • Sergey M. Rozov
  • Elena V. Deineko
  • Igor V. Deyneko
Original Article

Abstract

Main conclusion

The software FlowerMorphology is designed for automatic morphometry of actinomorphic flowers. The novel complex parameters of flowers calculated by FlowerMorphology allowed us to quantitatively characterize a polyploid series of tobacco.

Morphological differences of plants representing closely related lineages or mutants are mostly quantitative. Very often, there are only very fine variations in plant morphology. Therefore, accurate and high-throughput methods are needed for their quantification. In addition, new characteristics are necessary for reliable detection of subtle changes in morphology. FlowerMorphology is an all-in-one software package to automatically image and analyze five-petal actinomorphic flowers of the dicotyledonous plants. Sixteen directly measured parameters and ten calculated complex parameters of a flower allow us to characterize variations with high accuracy. The program was developed for the needs of automatic characterization of Nicotiana tabacum flowers, but is applicable to many other plants with five-petal actinomorphic flowers and can be adopted for flowers of other merosity. A genetically similar polyploid series of N. tabacum plants was used to investigate differences in flower morphology. For the first time, we could quantify the dependence between ploidy and size and form of the tobacco flowers. We found that the radius of inner petal incisions shows a persistent positive correlation with the chromosome number. In contrast, a commonly used parameter—radius of outer corolla—does not discriminate 2n and 4n plants. Other parameters show that polyploidy leads to significant aberrations in flower symmetry and are also positively correlated with chromosome number. Executables of FlowerMorphology, source code, documentation, and examples are available at the program website: https://github.com/Deyneko/FlowerMorphology.

Keywords

Automatic image acquisition and analysis Flower morphology Flower shape Flower symmetry 

Abbreviations

O1

Center of a circle around external vertices

O2

Center of a circle around internal vertices

O3

Center of a circle around a corolla tube

R

Radius of a circle around external vertices

R2

Radius of a circle around internal vertices

R3

Radius of a circle around a corolla tube

St

Area of a corolla tube

GAI

Geometrical asymmetry of (petal) incisions

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the program of SB RAS № 0324-2018-0017. The authors are grateful to A. Zagorskaya, Y. Sidorchuk, and S. Mursalimov for providing the polyploid series of N. tabacum, to F. Pessler for editing the manuscript and to one of the reviewers for thorough proofreading and valuable suggestions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Availability of data and material

Executables, source code, documentation, and examples are available at the program website: https://github.com/Deyneko/FlowerMorphology.

Supplementary material

425_2018_2856_MOESM1_ESM.docx (195 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 194 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Bioengineering of PlantsInstitute of Cytology and Genetics SD RASNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussia
  3. 3.Biomarkers in Infection and ImmunityHelmholtz Centre for Infection ResearchBrunswickGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Microbiology and Braunschweig Integrated Center of Systems Biology (BRICS)Technische Universität BraunschweigBrunswickGermany

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