Holaphyllamine, a steroid, is able to induce defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and increases resistance against bacterial infection
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A chemical screen of plant-derived compounds identified holaphyllamine, a steroid, able to trigger defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and improve resistance against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.
A chemical screen of 1600 plant-derived compounds was conducted and allowed the identification of a steroid able to activate defense responses in A. thaliana at a concentration of 1 µM without altering growth. The identified compound is holaphyllamine (HPA) whose chemical structure is similar to steroid pregnanes of mammals. Our data show that HPA, which is not constitutively present in A. thaliana, is able to trigger the formation of reactive oxygen species, deposition of callose and expression of several pathogenesis-related genes of the salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways. In addition, the results show that pre-treatment of A. thaliana seedlings with HPA before infection with the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 results in a significant reduction of symptoms (i.e., reduction of bacterial colonies). Using A. thaliana mutants, we have found that the activation of defense responses by HPA does not depend on BRI1/BAK1 receptor kinases. Finally, a structure/function study reveals that the minimal structure required for activity is a 5-pregnen-20-one steroid with an equatorial nucleophilic group in C-3. Together, these findings demonstrate that HPA can activate defense responses that lead to improved resistance against bacterial infection in A. thaliana.
KeywordsCallose Chemical screen Elicitor Holaphyllamine PATHOGENESIS-RELATED Plant defense Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 ROS Steroid
BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE1
Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000
We are grateful to Pr. Jianming Li (University of Michigan, Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) for the kind gift of the bri1-9 mutant.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was supported by the research network “Végétal-Agronomie-Sol-Innovations” (VASI) de Haute-Normandie and the Fonds Européen de Développement Régional (FEDER) in the ALTERAGRO project and the French ministry of Research and Higher Education. The post-doctoral scholarship of AZ was funded by FEDER. Cell imaging, microplate fluorescence detection and qRT-PCR analyses were performed at PRIMACEN (http://www.primacen.fr), the Cell Imaging Platform of Normandy, IRIB, Normandie Univ, UniRouen, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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