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Planta

, Volume 246, Issue 1, pp 19–32 | Cite as

Biosynthesis and bioactivity of glucosinolates and their production in plant in vitro cultures

  • Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante
  • María Borja-Martínez
  • María Ángeles Pedreño
  • Lorena AlmagroEmail author
Review

Abstract

Main conclusion

Glucosinolates are biologically active compounds which are involved in plant defense reaction. The use of plant in vitro cultures and genetic engineering is a promising strategy for their sustainable production.

Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites found mainly in Brassicaceae, which contain nitrogen and sulfur in their structures. Glucosinolates are divided into three groups depending on the amino acid from which they are biosynthesized. Aliphatic glucosinolates are generally derived from leucine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and alanine while indole and aromatic glucosinolates are derived from tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine, respectively. These compounds are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase when plants are stressed by biotic and abiotic factors, obtaining different degradation products. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products play an important role in plant defense responses against different types of stresses. In addition, these compounds have beneficial effect on human health because they are strong antioxidants and they have potent cardiovascular, antidiabetic, antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. Due to all the properties described above, the demand for glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products has enormously increased, and therefore, new strategies that allow the production of these compounds to be improved are needed. The use of plant in vitro cultures is emerging as a biotechnological strategy to obtain glucosinolates and their derivatives. This work is focused on the biosynthesis of glucosinolates and the bioactivity of these compounds in plants. In addition, a detailed study on the strategies used to increase the production of several glucosinolates, in particular those synthesized in Brassicaceae, using in vitro plant cultures has been made. Special attention has been paid for increasing the production of glucosinolates and their derivatives using metabolic engineering.

Keywords

Bioactivity Bioproduction Biosynthetic pathway Glucosinolates 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the Fundación Seneca-Agencia de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Región de Murcia (No. 19876/GERM/15) and by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (No. BIO2014-51861-R).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante
    • 1
  • María Borja-Martínez
    • 1
  • María Ángeles Pedreño
    • 1
  • Lorena Almagro
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of BiologyUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain

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