Screening of rice mutants with improved saccharification efficiency results in the identification of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 and GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE 1
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The screening of rice mutants with improved cellulose to glucose saccharification efficiency (SE) identifies reduced xylan and/or ferulic acid, and a qualitative change of lignin to impact SE.
To ensure the availability of sustainable energy, considerable effort is underway to utilize lignocellulosic plant biomass as feedstock for the production of biofuels. However, the high cost of degrading plant cell wall components to fermentable sugars (saccharification) has been problematic. One way to overcome this barrier is to develop plants possessing cell walls that are amenable to saccharification. In this study, we aimed to identify new molecular factors that influence saccharification efficiency (SE) in rice. By screening 22 rice mutants, we identified two lines, 122 and 108, with improved SE. Reduced xylan and ferulic acid within the cell wall of line 122 were probable reasons of improved SE. Line 108 showed reduced levels of thioglycolic-released lignin; however, the amount of Klason lignin was comparable to the wild-type, indicating that structural changes had occurred in the 108 lignin polymer which resulted in improved SE. Positional cloning revealed that the genes responsible for improved SE in 122 and 108 were rice CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (OsCOP1) and GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE 1 (GH1), respectively, which have not been previously reported to influence SE. The screening of mutants for improved SE is an efficient approach to identify novel genes that affect SE, which is relevant in the development of crops as biofuel sources.
KeywordsCellulose Ferulic acid Lignin Rice mutant Xylan
Bending moment at breaking
CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1
GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE 1
We thank Dr. Taiichiro Ookawa (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) for providing seeds of Leaf Star and Chugoku 117. We also thank Sayaka Murakami, Yusuke Iwamoto, Masaki Ban, Motoko Oosawa, Natsumi Mutoh, Yuri Kitagawa, and Chiaki Ishii for technical assistance. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the NC-CARP project, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan to TS and KH, and KAKENHI (series of single-year grants, 26 1393) to KH.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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