Naturally occurring high oleic acid cottonseed oil: identification and functional analysis of a mutant allele of Gossypium barbadense fatty acid desaturase-2
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Some naturally occurring cotton accessions contain commercially attractive seed oil fatty acid profiles. The likely causal factor for a high-oleate trait in pima cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ) accession GB-713 is described here.
Vegetable oils are broadly used in the manufacture of many human and animal nutritional products, and in various industrial applications. Along with other well-known edible plant oils from soybean, corn, and canola, cottonseed oil is a valuable commodity. Cottonseed oil is a co-product derived from the processing of cottonseed fiber. In the past, it was used extensively in a variety of food applications. However, cottonseed oil has lost market share in recent years due to less than optimal ratios of the constituent fatty acids found in either traditional or partially hydrogenated oil. Increased awareness of the negative health consequences of dietary trans-fats, along with the public wariness associated with genetically modified organisms has created high demand for naturally occurring oil with high monounsaturate/polyunsaturate ratios. Here, we report the discovery of multiple exotic accessions of pima cotton that contain elevated seed oil oleate content. The genome of one such accession was sequenced, and a mutant candidate fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2-1D) gene was identified. The mutant protein produced significantly less linoleic acid in infiltrated Arabidopsis leaf assays, compared to a repaired version of the same enzyme. Identification of this gene provides a valuable resource. Development of markers associated with this mutant locus will be very useful in efforts to breed the high-oleate trait into agronomic fiber accessions of upland cotton.
KeywordsCottonseed Fatty acid desaturase Oleic acid Linoleic acid
Fatty acid desaturase
Fatty acid methyl ester
Flame ionization detection
Generally recognized as safe
Germplasm Resources Information Network
U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection
Polymerase chain reaction
Partially hydrogenated oil
The authors would like to thank Ms. Catrina Ford (USDA-ARS, SRRC) for technical assistance in lipid analysis and Dr. John Browse (Washington State University) for the kind gift of the fad2-1 Arabidopsis mutant seeds. We also thank Drs. Christopher Mattison (USDA-ARS, SRRC) and Philip Bates (Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Southern Mississippi) for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Current Research Information System project numbers 6054-41000-102-00D (to JS, MD, and CM), 3091-21000-037-00D (to JF) and 6054-42000-025-00-D (to BM and MG).
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