Spatio-temporal diversification of the cell wall matrix materials in the developing stomatal complexes of Zea mays
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The matrix cell wall materials, in developing Zea mays stomatal complexes are asymmetrically distributed, a phenomenon appearing related to the local cell wall expansion and deformation, the establishment of cell polarity, and determination of the cell division plane.
In cells of developing Zea mays stomatal complexes, definite cell wall regions expand determinately and become locally deformed. This differential cell wall behavior is obvious in the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) and the subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) that locally protrude towards the adjacent GMCs. The latter, emitting a morphogenetic stimulus, induce polarization/asymmetrical division in SMCs. Examination of immunolabeled specimens revealed that homogalacturonans (HGAs) with a high degree of de-esterification (2F4- and JIM5-HGA epitopes) and arabinogalactan proteins are selectively distributed in the extending and deformed cell wall regions, while their margins are enriched with rhamnogalacturonans (RGAs) containing highly branched arabinans (LM6-RGA epitope). In SMCs, the local cell wall matrix differentiation constitutes the first structural event, indicating the establishment of cell polarity. Moreover, in the premitotic GMCs and SMCs, non-esterified HGAs (2F4-HGA epitope) are preferentially localized in the cell wall areas outlining the cytoplasm where the preprophase band is formed. In these areas, the forthcoming cell plate fuses with the parent cell walls. These data suggest that the described heterogeneity in matrix cell wall materials is probably involved in: (a) local cell wall expansion and deformation, (b) the transduction of the inductive GMC stimulus, and (c) the determination of the division plane in GMCs and SMCs.
KeywordsArabinogalactan proteins Cell wall deformation Cell wall expansion Cell polarity Determination of cell division plane Mixed-linkage glucans Pectins Stomatal complexes Zea mays
Guard cell mother cell
Reactive oxygen species
Subsidiary cell mother cell
This work was supported by a grant from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. The authors would like to thank Plant Probes for the kind offer of certain antibodies used in this study.
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