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Planta

, Volume 244, Issue 3, pp 639–650 | Cite as

Changes in light quality alter physiological responses of soybean to thiamethoxam

  • Hae Won Kim
  • Sasan Amirsadeghi
  • Andrew McKenzie-Gopsill
  • Maha Afifi
  • Gale Bozzo
  • Elizabeth A. Lee
  • Lewis Lukens
  • Clarence J. SwantonEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Main Conclusion

The interaction between neighboring weed-induced far-red enriched light and thiamethoxam can significantly alter soybean seedling morphology, nodulation, isoflavone levels, UV-absorbing phenolics, and carbon and nitrogen content.

Abstract

Neonicotinoid insecticides that are widely used on major crop plants can enhance plant growth and yield. Although the underlying mechanism of this enhanced growth and yield is not clear, recent studies suggest that neonicotinoids such as thiamethoxam (TMX) may exert their effects at least in part via signals that involve salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In the current research, effects of TMX on morphological and physiological responses of soybean have been compared under far-red-depleted (FR-D) and far-red-enriched (FR-E) light reflected by neighboring weeds. TMX significantly enhanced shoot and root growth but did not prevent stem elongation under FR-E light. Also, TMX did not prevent reductions in shoot carbon content and shoot carbon to nitrogen ratio under FR-E light. Despite similarities between these TMX effects in soybean and those known for SA and JA in other plant species, TMX significantly enhanced root-nodule numbers per plant and levels of root isoflavones malonyl-daidzin and malonyl-genistin under FR-E light only. These results suggest that the combined effect of FR-E light and TMX triggers a mechanism that operates concomitantly to enhance root isoflavones and nodulation in soybean.

Keywords

Carbon to nitrogen ratio Far-red light Isoflavones Neonicotinoids Nodulation Soybean-weed competition 

Abbreviations

C

Carbon

C/N

Carbon to nitrogen ratio

CLO

Clothianidin

CPCA

6-Chloropyridinyl-3-carboxylic acid

CTCA

2-Chlorothiazolyl-5-carboxylic acid

DAP

Days after planting

DW

Dry weight

FR-D

Far-red-depleted

FR-E

Far-red-enriched

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HSD

Honestly significant difference

ICS1

Isochorismate synthase 1

IFS

Isoflavone synthase

IMI

Imidacloprid

JA

Jasmonic acid

N

Nitrogen

OPDA

12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux density

R/FR

Red to far-red ratio

SA

Salicylic acid

TMX

Thiamethoxam

UV

Ultraviolet

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC-CRD file no. CRDPJ 425128-11 to C.J.S.) and Syngenta Canada Inc. The authors express their appreciation to Harold Wright and Jonathon Roepke for their contributions throughout this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hae Won Kim
    • 1
  • Sasan Amirsadeghi
    • 1
  • Andrew McKenzie-Gopsill
    • 1
  • Maha Afifi
    • 1
  • Gale Bozzo
    • 1
  • Elizabeth A. Lee
    • 1
  • Lewis Lukens
    • 1
  • Clarence J. Swanton
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant AgricultureUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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