, Volume 244, Issue 2, pp 347–359 | Cite as

Understanding plant cell-wall remodelling during the symbiotic interaction between Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana using a carbohydrate microarray

  • Fabiano Sillo
  • Jonatan U. Fangel
  • Bernard Henrissat
  • Antonella Faccio
  • Paola Bonfante
  • Francis Martin
  • William G. T. Willats
  • Raffaella Balestrini
Original Article


Main conclusion

A combined approach, using a carbohydrate microarray as a support for genomic data, has revealed subtle plant cell-wall remodelling during Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana interaction.

Cell walls are involved, to a great extent, in mediating plant–microbe interactions. An important feature of these interactions concerns changes in the cell-wall composition during interaction with other organisms. In ectomycorrhizae, plant and fungal cell walls come into direct contact, and represent the interface between the two partners. However, very little information is available on the re-arrangement that could occur within the plant and fungal cell walls during ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Taking advantage of the Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) technology, the current study has had the aim of monitoring the changes that take place in the plant cell wall in Corylus avellana roots during colonization by the ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus T. melanosporum. Additionally, genes encoding putative plant cell-wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) have been identified in the T. melanosporum genome, and RT-qPCRs have been performed to verify the expression of selected genes in fully developed C. avellana/T. melanosporum ectomycorrhizae. A localized degradation of pectin seems to occur during fungal colonization, in agreement with the growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus through the middle lamella and with the fungal gene expression of genes acting on these polysaccharides.


Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes CoMPP Ectomycorrhiza Hazel Plant cell wall Tuber 



Carbohydrate-binding module


Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling


Glycoside hydrolase




Plant cell-wall degrading enzymes



The Authors would like to thank Marta Vallino (Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, Turin) for her support in the TEM observations and Annegret Kohler (INRA, Nancy) for her work on the development and management of the T. melanosporum transcriptome datasets. F. Martin’s laboratory is funded and supported by the French National Research Agency through the Laboratory of Excellence ARBRE (Grant no. ANR-11-LBX-002-01) and the Plant–Microbe Interactions Project, Genomic Science Programme, of the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological, and Environmental Research (Grant No. DE-AC05-00OR22725).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

425_2016_2507_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Fig. S1 a Corylus avellana/Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhizae with the typical clavate aspect. b Longitudinal semi-thin section of a C. avellana/T. melanosporum ectomycorrhiza showing the mantle (m) which consists of several layers of hyphae, and the Hartig net proliferation (arrows). As suggested from a quantification based on an RNA proportion (Tisserant et al. 2011), at this stage of development, fungal mycelium represents about 30 % of the ectomycorrhizal tissues. Scale bar 25 μm
425_2016_2507_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabiano Sillo
    • 1
    • 9
  • Jonatan U. Fangel
    • 2
  • Bernard Henrissat
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Antonella Faccio
    • 7
  • Paola Bonfante
    • 1
  • Francis Martin
    • 8
  • William G. T. Willats
    • 2
  • Raffaella Balestrini
    • 7
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Della Vita e Biologia dei SistemiUniversità di TorinoTorinoItaly
  2. 2.Section for Plant Glycobiology, Department of Plant and Environmental SciencesCopenhagen UniversityCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7257MarseilleFrance
  4. 4.Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules BiologiquesAix-Marseille UniversityMarseilleFrance
  5. 5.INRA, USC 1408 AFMBMarseilleFrance
  6. 6.Department of Biological SciencesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  7. 7.Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante (IPSP) del CNR, Torino UnitTorinoItaly
  8. 8.Laboratoire d’excellence ARBRE, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA)UMR 1136 Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, INRA-NancyChampenouxFrance
  9. 9.Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali e AlimentariUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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