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Planta

, Volume 243, Issue 2, pp 281–296 | Cite as

The polyploidy and its key role in plant breeding

  • Mariana Cansian Sattler
  • Carlos Roberto Carvalho
  • Wellington Ronildo ClarindoEmail author
Review

Abstract

Main conclusion

This article provides an up-to-date review concerning from basic issues of polyploidy to aspects regarding the relevance and role of both natural and artificial polyploids in plant breeding programs.

Polyploidy is a major force in the evolution of both wild and cultivated plants. Polyploid organisms often exhibit increased vigor and, in some cases, outperform their diploid relatives in several aspects. This remarkable superiority of polyploids has been the target of many plant breeders in the last century, who have induced polyploidy and/or used natural polyploids in many ways to obtain increasingly improved plant cultivars. Some of the most important consequences of polyploidy for plant breeding are the increment in plant organs (“gigas” effect), buffering of deleterious mutations, increased heterozygosity, and heterosis (hybrid vigor). Regarding such features as tools, cultivars have been generated with higher yield levels, improving the product quality and increasing the tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses. In some cases, when the crossing between two species is not possible because of differences in ploidy level, polyploids can be used as a bridge for gene transferring between them. In addition, polyploidy often results in reduced fertility due to meiotic errors, allowing the production of seedless varieties. On the other hand, the genome doubling in a newly formed sterile hybrid allows the restoration of its fertility. Based on these aspects, the present review initially concerns the origin, frequency and classification of the polyploids, progressing to show the revolution promoted by the discovery of natural polyploids and polyploidization induction in the breeding program status of distinct crops.

Keywords

Autopolyploidy Allopolyploidy Hybridization Plant breeding Heterosis Hybrid bridge “Gigas” effect 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brasília, DF, Brazil), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Espírito Santo (FAPES, Vitória, ES, Brazil) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brasília, DF, Brazil) for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariana Cansian Sattler
    • 1
  • Carlos Roberto Carvalho
    • 2
  • Wellington Ronildo Clarindo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratório de Citogenética, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências AgráriasUniversidade Federal do Espírito SantoAlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Citogenética e Citometria, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da SaúdeUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil

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