Inoculation of Astragalus racemosus and Astragalus convallarius with selenium-hyperaccumulator rhizosphere fungi affects growth and selenium accumulation
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Little is known about how fungi affect plant selenium (Se) accumulation. Here we investigate the effects of two fungi on Se accumulation, translocation, and chemical speciation in the hyperaccumulator Astragalus racemosus and the non-accumulator Astragalus convallarius. The fungi, Alternaria astragali (A3) and Fusarium acuminatum (F30), were previously isolated from Astragalus hyperaccumulator rhizosphere. A3-inoculation enhanced growth of A. racemosus yet inhibited growth of A. convallarius. Selenium treatment negated these effects. F30 reduced shoot-to-root Se translocation in A. racemosus. X-ray microprobe analysis showed no differences in Se speciation between inoculation groups. The Astragalus species differed in Se localization and speciation. A. racemosus root-Se was distributed throughout the taproot and lateral root and was 90 % organic in the lateral root. The related element sulfur (S) was present as a mixture of organic and inorganic forms in the hyperaccumulator. Astragalus convallarius root-Se was concentrated in the extreme periphery of the taproot. In the lateral root, Se was exclusively in the vascular core and was only 49 % organic. These findings indicate differences in Se assimilation between the two species and differences between Se and S speciation in the hyperaccumulator. The finding that fungi can affect translocation may have applications in phytoremediation and biofortification.
KeywordsPlant–microbe interactions Hyperaccumulation Alternaria astragali Fusarium acuminatum μ-X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy μ-X-ray fluorescence mapping
We thank Ami Wangeline for providing the two fungal isolates, and Jose Rodolfo Valdez Barillas for helping with fungal cultivation and preparation. Funding for these studies was provided by National Science Foundation grant # IOS-0817748 to Elizabeth A. H. Pilon-Smits. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, and Division of Materials Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-05CH11231).
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