, Volume 236, Issue 6, pp 1849–1861 | Cite as

Thaxtomin A-deficient endophytic Streptomyces sp. enhances plant disease resistance to pathogenic Streptomyces scabies

  • Lan Lin
  • Hui Ming Ge
  • Tong Yan
  • Yan Hua Qin
  • Ren Xiang Tan
Original Article


Each plant species in nature harbors endophytes, a community of microbes living within host plants without causing any disease symptom. However, the exploitation of endophyte-based phytoprotectants is hampered by the paucity of mechanistic understandings of endophyte-plant interaction. We here reported two endophytic Streptomyces isolates IFB-A02 and IFB-A03 recovered from a stress-tolerant dicotyledonous plant Artemisia annua L. After the determination of their non-pathogenicity at the genomic level and from the toxin (thaxtomin A, TXT) level, the endophytism of both isolates was supported by their successful colonization in planta. Of the two endophytes, IFB-A03 was further studied for the mechanism of endophyte-conferred phytoprotection owing to its plant growth promotion in model eudicot Arabidopsisthaliana. Using the endophyte-Arabidopsis co-cultivation system into which pathogenic Streptomyces scabies was introduced, we demonstrated that IFB-A03 pre-inoculation could activate the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense responses upon pathogen challenge. Moreover, IFB-A03 was shown to partially rescue the defense deficiency in eds5 (enhanced disease susceptibility 5) Arabidopsis mutants, putatively acting at the upstream of SA accumulation in the defense signaling pathway associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These data suggest that endophytic Streptomyces sp. IFB-A03 could be a promising candidate for biocontrol agents against S. scabies—a causative pathogen of common scab diseases prevailing in agronomic systems.


Artemisia annua L. Endophyte Streptomyces sp. Arabidopsis thaliana Plant defense 



Thaxtomin A


Salicylic acid


Enhanced disease susceptibility 5


Systemic acquired resistance

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lan Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hui Ming Ge
    • 1
  • Tong Yan
    • 1
  • Yan Hua Qin
    • 1
  • Ren Xiang Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical BiotechnologyNanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Bioengineering, Medical SchoolSoutheast UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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