Planta

, Volume 222, Issue 5, pp 743–756 | Cite as

Signaling pathways from the chloroplast to the nucleus

Review

Abstract

Genetic and physiological studies have to-date revealed evidence for five signaling pathways by which the chloroplast exerts retrograde control over nuclear genes. One of these pathways is dependent on product(s) of plastid protein synthesis, for another the signal is singlet oxygen, a third employs chloroplast-generated hydrogen peroxide, a fourth is controlled by the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, and a fifth involves intermediates and possibly proteins of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. These five pathways may be part of a complex signaling network that links the functional and physiological state of the chloroplast to the nucleus. Mutants defective in various steps of photosynthesis reveal a surprising diversity in nuclear responses suggesting the existence of a complex signaling network.

Keywords

Chloroplast-nucleus signaling Green algae Nuclear gene expression Plastid protein synthesis Reactive oxygen species Redox poise Tetrapyrroles 

Abbreviations

ALA

5-aminolevulinic acid

CHL H

H subunit of Mg-chelatase

CHL I

I subunit of Mg-chelatase

Chl

Chlorophyll

Chld

Chlorophyllide

DBMIB

2,5-di-bromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone

DCMU

3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea

gun

Genome uncoupled

LHC

Gene for light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein

MgProto

Mg protoporphyrin IX

MgProtoMe

Mg protoporphyrin monomethyl ester

Pchld

Protochlorophyllide

Proto

Protoporphyrin IX

Protogen

Protoporphyrinogen

PS

Photosystem

RBCS

Gene for small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

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© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biology IIIUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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