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Muscarinic receptors in adrenal chromaffin cells: physiological role and regulation of ion channels

  • Masumi InoueEmail author
  • Hidetada Matsuoka
  • Keita Harada
  • Lung-Sen KaoEmail author
Invited Review

Abstract

Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells in mammals are innervated by sympathetic preganglionic nerve fibers, as are sympathetic ganglion neurons. Acetylcholine in the ganglion neurons is well established as mediating fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials through nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), respectively. The role of muscarinic AChRs during neuronal transmission in chromaffin cells varies among different mammals. Furthermore, the ion channel mechanisms associated with the muscarinic AChR-mediated increase in excitability of chromaffin cells are complicated and different from the excitation of ganglion neurons, which has been ascribed to the inhibition of M-type K+ channels. In this review, we focus on muscarinic receptor-mediated excitation in rodent and guinea pig chromaffin cells, in particular, on the role of muscarinic receptors in neuronal transmission, the muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in excitation and secretion, and the muscarinic regulation of ion channels including TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channels. Finally, we discuss prospectively the future of muscarinic receptor research in adrenal chromaffin cells.

Keywords

Adrenal chromaffin cell Muscarinic receptor TASK channel TRPC channel Acetylcholine 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by grants from JSPS KAKENHI (MI, HM, KH), a grant from the Salt Science Foundation (MI), and a grant from the Ministry of Education (Aim for the Top University Plan) (L-SK). We apologize for the missing citations of many studies that have contributed to the progress in the field.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell and Systems PhysiologyUniversity of Occupational and Environmental Health School of MedicineKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome SciencesNational Yang-Ming UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China

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