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Carbohydrate hastens hypervolemia achieved through ingestion of aqueous sodium solution in resting euhydrated humans

Abstract

Purpose

Ingesting beverages containing a high concentration of sodium under euhydrated conditions induces hypervolemia. Because carbohydrate can enhance interstitial fluid absorption via the sodium–glucose cotransporter and insulin-dependent renal sodium reabsorption, adding carbohydrate to high-sodium beverages may augment the hypervolemic response.

Methods

To test this hypothesis, we had nine healthy young males ingest 1087 ± 82 mL (16–17 mL per kg body weight) of water or aqueous solution containing 0.7% NaCl, 0.7% NaCl + 6% dextrin, 0.9% NaCl, or 0.9% NaCl + 6% dextrin under euhydrated conditions. Each drink was divided into six equal volumes and ingested at 10-min intervals. During each trial, participants remained resting for 150 min. Measurements were made at baseline and every 30 min thereafter.

Results

Plasma osmolality decreased with water ingestion (P ≤ 0.023), which increased urine volume such that there was no elevation in plasma volume from baseline (P ≥ 0.059). The reduction in plasma osmolality did not occur with ingestion of solution containing 0.7% or 0.9% NaCl (P ≥ 0.051). Consequently, urine volume was 176–288 mL smaller than after water ingestion and resulted in plasma volume expansion at 60 min and later times (P ≤ 0.042). In addition, net fluid balance was 211–329 mL greater than after water ingestion (P ≤ 0.028). Adding 6% dextrin to 0.7% or 0.9% NaCl solution resulted in plasma volume expansion within as little as 30 min (P ≤ 0.026), though the magnitudes of the increases in plasma volume were unaffected (P ≥ 0.148).

Conclusion

Dextrin mediates an earlier hypervolemic response associated with ingestion of high-sodium solution in resting euhydrated young men. (247/250 words)

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Abbreviations

NaCl:

Sodium chloride

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Acknowledgements

We would like to sincerely thank the Saga Nutraceuticals Research institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. for ideas and their supplying the dextrin used in this study. We also thank the volunteer subjects for participating in this study.

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Contributions

NF, AS, and TN conceived and designed experiments. NF, AS, KW, and TN performed experiments. NF, AS, AK, SM, IM, and JK analyzed data. NF, AS, KW, TN, AK, SM, IM, JK, and TN interpreted results of experiments. NF and AK prepared figures. NF drafted manuscript. NF, AS, KW, TN, AK, SM, IM, JK, and TN edited and revised manuscript. All authors approved the final version of manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Takeshi Nishiyasu.

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Communicated by George Havenith.

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Fujii, N., Sugihara, A., Watanabe, K. et al. Carbohydrate hastens hypervolemia achieved through ingestion of aqueous sodium solution in resting euhydrated humans. Eur J Appl Physiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04788-0

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Keywords

  • Hyperhydration
  • Extracellular fluid
  • Blood volume
  • Diuresis
  • Sodium
  • Glucose