We aimed to investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on, hemodynamic, cerebrovascular and postural balance responses during orthostatic stress, in older women.
Fourteen elderly women were assigned to perform IMT at 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) (IMT group, n = 8) or placebo training at 5% MIP (Sham group, n = 6), in a counter-balanced order, using an inspiratory threshold device for 4 weeks. During the protocol, MIP was tested weekly once. In a second visit, blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv), and ventilation parameters were recorded continuously at rest and during orthostatic stress testing, which was conducted on a force plate to measure center-of-pressure (COP) oscillations (postural balance) and the electromyographic activity of the right medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior.
IMT increased MIP from second to 4th week. The drops in MCAv, stroke volume, and cardiac output, as well as COP displacements during initial orthostasis decreased post-IMT.
IMT improves the interplay of the respiratory pump, hemodynamic, cerebrovascular and postural balance responses during orthostatic stress in older women.
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Analysis of covariance
Analysis of variance
Center of pressure
- E t :
Forced expiratory volume in one second
Forced vital capacity
Inspiratory muscle training
- I t :
Mean blood pressure
Middle cerebral artery blood velocity
Maximal inspiratory pressure
Maximum voluntary contraction
- PetCO2 :
Expired carbon dioxide pressure
Systolic blood pressure
- T tot :
Total respiratory cycle time
- V t :
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We greatly appreciate the time and effort expended by all volunteer subjects in this study. We would also like to thank professor Igor Fernandes for his support discussing the results, and my lab’s colleagues Andre Musmmano and Luana Farinazzo for their support during the experiments.
This work was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Fundação Carlos Chagas de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ/ E-26/110.079/2013).
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Communicated by Massimo Pagani.
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Rodrigues, G.D., Gurgel, J.L., Galdino, I.d. et al. Inspiratory muscle training improves cerebrovascular and postural control responses during orthostatic stress in older women. Eur J Appl Physiol 120, 2171–2181 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04441-2
- Respiratory muscles
- Cardiac output
- Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity