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Repeated sprint in hypoxia as a time-metabolic efficient strategy to improve physical fitness of obese women

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the training and detraining effects of two different hypoxic high-intensity protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal fat oxidation and energy contribution in obese women.

Methods

82 obese women completed a 12-week training of: (1) interval training in hypoxia (IHT; n = 19; 3 min at 90%Wmax: 3 min at 55–65%Wmax; FiO2 = 17.2%), (2) interval training in normoxia (INT; n = 20; 3 min at 90%Wmax: 3 min at 55–65%Wmax), (3) repeated sprint training in hypoxia (RSH; n = 22; 30 s at 130%Wmax: 3 min at 55–65%Wmax; FiO2 = 17.2%), and (4) repeated sprint training in normoxia (RSN; n = 21; 30 s at 130%Wmax: 3 min at 55–65%Wmax). VO2max, workload, time to exhaustion and heart rate were assessed at baseline, after completion of 36 training sessions over 12 weeks and after 4 weeks of detraining.

Results

Hypoxic training (IHT and RSH) showed a significant positive effect on absolute (p < 0.001) and relative maximal oxygen uptake (p < 0.001) as well as VT2 (%VO2max; p < 0.001). Both IHT and RSH showed significantly higher values of absolute VO2max (IHT: + 26.63%; RSH: + 19.79%) and relative VO2max (IHT: + 27.95%; RSH: + 19.94%) between baseline and post-exercise (p < 0.001). VO2max (IHT: + 21.74%; RSH: + 17.65%) and relative VO2max (IHT: + 23.53%; RSH: + 17.15%) remained significantly higher after detraining in IHT and RSH (p < 0.001).

Conclusion

A larger improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness has been observed after high-intensity interval training under normobaric hypoxia. As interval training or repeated sprint training did not show a significant effect, RSH might provide a time-metabolic effective strategy in this population.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

% fat:

Percentage of fat mass

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

BMI:

Body mass index

CRF:

Cardiorespiratory fitness

DBP:

Diastolic blood pressure

ES:

Effect size

FATmax:

Highest recorded fat oxidation rate

FiO2 :

Inspired fraction of oxygen

HIF:

Hypoxia inducible factor

HR:

Heart rate

HRmax:

Maximal heart rate

INT:

Interval training in normoxia

IPAQ:

International Physical Activity Questionnaire

IT:

Interval training

ITH:

Interval training in hypoxia

MFO:

Maximal fat oxidation

RPE:

Rate perceived exertion

SBP:

Systolic blood pressure

RST:

Repeated sprint training

RSH:

Repeated sprint training in hypoxia

RSN:

Repeated sprint training in normoxia

SPO2 :

Oxygen saturation

TtE:

Time to exhaustion

VO2 :

Oxygen uptake

VO2max :

Maximal oxygen uptake

W:

Watts

W max :

Maximal workload

References

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Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Regional Government of Extremadura (Spain) under Grant (CTS036 GR18003) and Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (FPU15/00450).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

AC-C: designed the research study, conducted the experiments, and wrote the manuscript. MC-C: acquired and analyse the data, and wrote the manuscript. JB-S: designed the research study, acquired the data, and wrote the manuscript. RT: designed the research study, and acquired the data. AG-C: conducted the experiments, and acquired the data. GO: designed the research study, analysed the data, and wrote the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Marta Camacho-Cardenosa.

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Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.

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Communicated by I. Mark Olfert.

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Camacho-Cardenosa, A., Camacho-Cardenosa, M., Brazo-Sayavera, J. et al. Repeated sprint in hypoxia as a time-metabolic efficient strategy to improve physical fitness of obese women. Eur J Appl Physiol 120, 1051–1061 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04344-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04344-2

Keywords

  • Normobaric hypoxia
  • Cardiometabolic health
  • Obesity
  • Exercise cessation
  • Intensity exercise