European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 8, pp 1885–1899 | Cite as

The effects of lower body passive heating combined with mixed-method cooling during half-time on second-half intermittent sprint performance in the heat

  • Jacky SooEmail author
  • Gabriel Tang
  • Saravana Pillai Arjunan
  • Joel Pang
  • Abdul Rashid Aziz
  • Mohammed Ihsan
Original Article



This study examined the effects of combined cooling and lower body heat maintenance during half-time on second-half intermittent sprint performances.


In a repeated measures design, nine males completed four intermittent cycling trials (32.1 ± 0.3 °C and 55.3 ± 3.7% relative humidity), with either one of the following half-time recovery interventions; mixed-method cooling (ice vest, ice slushy and hand cooling; COOL), lower body passive heating (HEAT), combined HEAT and COOL (COMB) and control (CON). Peak and mean power output (PPO and MPO), rectal (Tre), estimated muscle (Tes-Mus) and skin (TSK) temperatures were monitored throughout exercise.


During half-time, the decrease in Tre was substantially greater in COOL and COMB compared with CON and HEAT, whereas declines in Tes-Mus within HEAT and COMB were substantially attenuated compared with CON and COOL. The decrease in TSK was most pronounced in COOL compared with CON, HEAT and COMB. During second-half, COMB and HEAT resulted in a larger decrease in PPO and MPO during the initial stages of the second-half when compared to CON. In addition, COOL resulted in an attenuated decrease in PPO and MPO compared to COMB in the latter stages of second-half.


The maintenance of Tes-Mus following half-time was detrimental to prolonged intermittent sprint performance in the heat, even when used together with cooling.


Intermittent sprint performance Mixed-method cooling Passive heating Half-time intervention Team sports 



Mean power output


Combined upper body cooling and lower body passive heating




Upper body cooling


Lower body passive heating


Heart rate


Peak power output


Single sprint


Rating of perceived exertion


Repeated sprint


Body temperature


Core temperature


Estimated muscle temperature


Muscle temperature


Rectal temperature


Thermal sensation


Mean skin temperature


Urine-specific gravity


Peak oxygen uptake


Author contributions

MI, GT, AR and SA conceived and designed the research. MI, GT, JP and JS conducted the study. MI and JS analysed the data and wrote the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.


No sources of funding were acquired for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards:

Conflict of interests

The authors have no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacky Soo
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gabriel Tang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Saravana Pillai Arjunan
    • 3
  • Joel Pang
    • 1
  • Abdul Rashid Aziz
    • 1
  • Mohammed Ihsan
    • 4
  1. 1.Sport Physiology, Sport Science and MedicineSingapore Sport InstituteSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Physical Education and Sports ScienceNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Physical, Sports and Outdoor Education Branch, Student Development Curriculum DivisionMinistry of EducationSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Athlete Health and Performance Research CentreAspetar Orthopedic and Sports Medicine HospitalDohaQatar

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