European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 119, Issue 8, pp 1875–1883 | Cite as

Cardiorespiratory kinetics: comparisons between athletes with different training habits

  • Jessica KoschateEmail author
  • Laura Gerlich
  • Veronika Wirtz
  • Lutz Thieschäfer
  • Uwe Drescher
  • Uwe Hoffmann
Original Article



Fast muscular oxygen uptake (\({\dot{V}}{\text{O}_\text{2musc}}\)) kinetics are limiting factors for high exercise capacities. It is hypothesized that \({\dot{V}}{\text{O}_\text{2musc}}\) and heart rate (HR) kinetics would be faster in individuals, performing long-distance endurance training (CONT) compared with athletes performing predominantly interval-based sports (INT).


17 subjects (INT: n = 7, 24 ± 5 years, 183 ± 7 cm, 85 ± 10 kg, 6 ± 3 h of training per week, CONT: n = 10, 37 ± 7 years, 175 ± 9 cm, 69 ± 10 kg, 6 ± 3 h of training per week) completed a treadmill work rate (WR) protocol with pseudo-randomized WR changes with velocities of 6.5 and 9.5 km h−1. \({\dot{V}}\)O2musc and the respective kinetics were estimated from the measured pulmonary oxygen uptake and HR combined with a circulatory model. Kinetics information were calculated using time series analysis. Higher maxima of the cross-correlation function (CCF) of WR and the respective parameter (\({\dot{V}}{\text{O}_\text{2musc}}\), HR) indicate faster kinetics responses.


The kinetics of HR (INT: 0.23 ± 0.04 vs. CONT: 0.42 ± 0.18; P = 0.001), \({\dot{V}}\)O2pulm (0.30 ± 0.05 vs. 0.53 ± 0.20; P = 0.005) and \({\dot{V}}\)O2musc (0.31 ± 0.06 vs. 0.53 ± 0.16; P = 0.005) were significantly slower in INT compared with the CONT athletes.


It seems that at least in the long-term CONT exercise, training without the need of changing intensities is favorable for fast \({\dot{V}}\)O2 and HR kinetics compared with INT exercise including frequently changing intensities.


Endurance training Cardiorespiratory kinetics PRBS Circulatory model Changing metabolic demands 


%\({\dot{V}}\)O2 GET

Oxygen uptake at the gas exchange threshold


Auto-correlation function


Cross-correlation function


Delay between the maxima of ACF and CCF


Maximum of the CCF between work rate and the respective parameter


Individuals performing predominantly long-distance endurance training


Fast twitch fibers


Gas exchange threshold


Heart rate


Individuals performing predominantly interval-based sports


Pseudo-random binary sequences


Cardiac output


Slow twitch fibers


Stroke volume


Maximal oxygen uptake


Peak oxygen uptake


Muscular oxygen uptake


Pulmonary oxygen uptake


Work rate



This research was supported by a research fund of the German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.; Grant number 50WB1626). We would like to thank Janosch Wacker for his support during the measurements.

Author contributions

JK, UH, LG and VW conceived and designed the research. JK, LG and VW conducted the experiments. UD and UH contributed new analytical thoughts. JK, LG, VW, LT, UD and UH analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the manuscript.


This research was supported by a research fund of the German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.; Grant number: 50WB1626).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physiology and AnatomyGerman Sport UniversityCologneGermany

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