Physiological comparison between non-athletes, endurance, power and team athletes
We hypothesized that endurance athletes have lower muscle power than power athletes due to a combination of weaker and slower muscles, while their higher endurance is attributable to better oxygen extraction, reflecting a higher muscle oxidative capacity and larger stroke volume. Endurance (n = 87; distance runners, road cyclists, paddlers, skiers), power (n = 77; sprinters, throwers, combat sport athletes, body builders), team (n = 64; basketball, soccer, volleyball) and non-athletes (n = 223) performed a countermovement jump and an incremental running test to estimate their maximal anaerobic and aerobic power (VO2max), respectively. Dynamometry and M-mode echocardiography were used to measure muscle strength and stroke volume. The VO2max (L min−1) was larger in endurance and team athletes than in power athletes and non-athletes (p < 0.05). Athletes had a larger stroke volume, left ventricular mass and left ventricular wall thickness than non-athletes (p < 0.02), but there were no significant differences between athlete groups. The higher anaerobic power in power and team athletes than in endurance athletes and non-athletes (p < 0.001) was associated with a larger force (p < 0.001), but not faster contractile properties. Endurance athletes (20.6%) had a higher (p < 0.05) aerobic:anaerobic power ratio than controls and power and team athletes (14.0–15.3%). The larger oxygen pulse, without significant differences in stroke volume, in endurance than power athletes indicates a larger oxygen extraction during exercise. Power athletes had stronger, but not faster, muscles than endurance athletes. The similar VO2max in endurance and team athletes and similar jump power in team and power athletes suggest that concurrent training does not necessarily impair power or endurance performance.
KeywordsMaximal oxygen uptake Jumping power Anaerobic capacity Performance
Maximal breathing frequency
Body Mass Index
Coefficient of variation
Forced expiratory volume in one second
Forced vital capacity
Left ventricular mass
Maximal voluntary contraction torque
Predicted peak expiratory flow
Relative left cardiac ventricle wall thickness
Relative left ventricular wall thickness
Maximal pulmonary ventilation
Maximal oxygen uptake
We thank all participants for taking part in the study.
Author contribution statement
HD, AS, AS, BS, and TV conceived the study and collected the data. HD and TV performed the analyses. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the writing of the manuscript.
The study was funded by the Lithuanian Sports University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any conflicts of interest.
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