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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 118, Issue 7, pp 1493–1505 | Cite as

Lactate kinetics in handcycling under various exercise modalities and their relationship to performance measures in able-bodied participants

  • Oliver J. Quittmann
  • Thomas Abel
  • Sebastian Zeller
  • Tina Foitschik
  • Heiko K. Strüder
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to expand exercise testing in handcycling by (1) examining different approaches to determine lactate kinetics in handcycling under various exercise modalities and (2) identifying relationships between parameters of lactate kinetics and selected performance measures.

Methods

Twelve able-bodied nationally competitive triathletes performed a familiarisation, a sprint test, an incremental step test, and a continuous load trial at a power output corresponding to a lactate concentration (La) of 4 mmol l−1 (PO4) in a racing handcycle that was mounted on an ergometer. During the tests, La and heart rate (HR) were determined. As performance measures, maximal power output during the 15-s All-Out sprint test (POmax,AO15) and maximal power output during the incremental test (POmax,ST) were determined. As physiological parameters, coefficients of lactate kinetics, maximal lactate accumulation rate (\(\dot {V}\)Lamax), maximal La following the sprint test and incremental test (Lamax,AO15, Lamax,ST) and the increase in La within the last 20 min of the continuous trial (LaCrit,CT) were determined.

Results

Mean values of POmax,AO15 (545.6 ± 69.9 W), POmax,ST (131.3 ± 14.9 W), PO4 (86.73 ± 12.32 W), \(\dot {V}\)Lamax (0.45 ± 0.11 mmol l−1 s−1), Lamax,AO15 (6.64 ± 1.32 mmol l−1), Lamax,ST (9.64 ± 2.24 mmol l−1) and LaCrit,CT (0.74 ± 0.74 mmol l−1) were in accordance to literature. \(\dot {V}\)Lamax was positively correlated with Lamax,AO15 and POmax,AO15 and negatively correlated with POmax,ST. POmax,ST was negatively correlated with Lamax,AO15. PO4 was negatively correlated with Lamax,ST.

Conclusions

\(\dot {V}\)Lamax was identified as a promising parameter for exercise testing in handcycling that can be supplemented by other parameters describing lactate kinetics following a sprint test.

Keywords

Exercise testing Diagnostics \(\dot {V}\)Lamax Lactic power Lactate threshold Paralympic sport 

Abbreviations

A

Amplitude parameter describing post-exercise lactate kinetics of the 15-s All-Out test

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BMI

Body mass index (kg m− 2)

bST

Increase in power output with each step of the incremental step test (W 5 min− 1)

c1

Linear coefficient of the quadratic polynomial for the incremental step test

c2

Quadratic coefficient of the quadratic polynomial for the incremental step test

CSA

Cross-sectional area

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

H+

Proton (H+-Ion)

HC

Handcycling

HIIT

High-intensity interval training

HR

Heart rate (min−1)

k1

Velocity constant describing the exchange of lactate from the previously active muscles

k2

Velocity constant describing the removal of lactate during passive recovery

La

Lactate concentration (mmol·l−1)

La(0)

Lactate concentration at rest

La(PO)

Lactate concentration for a given power output

La(t)

Lactate concentration at a given time

LaCrit,CT

Maximal increase in lactate concentration within the last 20 min of the continuous load test

Lamax,AO15

Maximal lactate concentration after the 15-s All-Out sprint trial

Lamax,CT

Maximal lactate concentration within the continuous load test

Lamax,ST

Maximal lactate concentration within the incremental step test

LT

Lactate threshold

MCT

Monocarboxylate transporter

MICT

Moderate intensity continuous training

MLSS

Maximal lactate steady state

MV

Mean value

P

Probability of committing a type I error

PCr

Creatine phosphate

PFK

Phosphofructokinase

PO

Power output (W)

PO4

Power output equivalent to a lactate concentration of 4 mmol·l−1

POlast

Power output within the last (unfinished) step of the incremental step test

POmax,AO15

Maximal power output within the 15-s All-Out test

POmax,ST

Maximal power output within the incremental step test

r

Correlation coefficient

R2

Determination coefficient (%)

RPE

Rate of perceived exertion

SCI

Spinal cord injury

SD

Standard deviation

talac

Period at the beginning of exercise for which no lactate formation is assumed (s)

tlast

Exercise duration within the last (unfinished) step of the incremental step test (s)

tST

Prescribed duration of each step during the incremental step test (5 min ≙ 300 s) (s)

TE

Technical error (%)

\(\dot {V}\)Lamax

Maximal lactate accumulation rate (lactic power) (mmol·l−1·s−1)

\(\dot {V}\)O2max

Maximal oxygen consumption (aerobic power) (ml min−1 kg−1)

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all participants who took part in this study for their patience and commitment. There were no funding sources for the present article.

Author contributions

OJQ and TA conceived and designed research. OJQ conducted experiments. TA conducted medical background during experiments. OJQ contributed new analytical tools. OJQ analyzed data. OJQ wrote the manuscript. TA, TF and SZ reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this article.

Supplementary material

421_2018_3879_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 12 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver J. Quittmann
    • 1
  • Thomas Abel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sebastian Zeller
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tina Foitschik
    • 1
  • Heiko K. Strüder
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Movement and NeurosciencesGerman Sport University CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.European Research Group in Disability Sport (ERGiDS)CologneGermany

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