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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 12, pp 2433–2443 | Cite as

Acute effects of repeated cycling sprints in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation

  • Xavier Woorons
  • Patrick Mucci
  • Julien Aucouturier
  • Agathe Anthierens
  • Grégoire P. Millet
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the acute responses to repeated-sprint exercise (RSE) in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume (VHL).

Methods

Nine well-trained subjects performed two sets of eight 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer followed by 24 s of inactive recovery. RSE was randomly carried out either with normal breathing (RSN) or with VHL (RSH-VHL). Peak (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) of each sprint were measured. Arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), gas exchange and muscle concentrations of oxy-([O2Hb]) and deoxyhaemoglobin/myoglobin ([HHb]) were continuously recorded throughout exercise. Blood lactate concentration ([La]) was measured at the end of the first (S1) and second set (S2).

Results

There was no difference in PPO and MPO between conditions in all sprints. Arterial oxygen saturation (87.7 ± 3.6 vs 96.9 ± 1.8% at the last sprint) and HR were lower in RSH-VHL than in RSN during most part of exercise. The changes in [O2Hb] and [HHb] were greater in RSH-VHL at S2. Oxygen uptake was significantly higher in RSH-VHL than in RSN during the recovery periods following sprints at S2 (3.02 ± 0.4 vs 2.67 ± 0.5 L min−1 on average) whereas [La] was lower in RSH-VHL at the end of exercise (10.3 ± 2.9 vs 13.8 ± 3.5 mmol.L−1; p < 0.01).

Conclusions

This study shows that performing RSE with VHL led to larger arterial and muscle deoxygenation than with normal breathing while maintaining similar power output. This kind of exercise may be worth using for performing repeated sprint training in hypoxia.

Keywords

Hypoventilation Hypoxia Hypoxemia Repeated sprints Exercise 

Abbreviations

[HHb]

Muscle concentrations of deoxyhaemoglobin/myoglobin

[La]

Blood lactate concentration

[O2Hb]

Muscle concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin/myoglobin

[tHb]

Total haemoglobin/myoglobin

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

FRC

Functional residual capacity

HR

Heart rate

MPO

Mean power output

NB

Normal breathing

NIRS

Near-infrared spectroscopy

PPO

Peak power output

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

RSE

Repeated-sprint exercise

RSH

Repeated sprints in hypoxia

RSH-VHL

Repeated sprints in hypoxia induced by voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume

RSN

Repeated sprints in normoxia

SpO2

Arterial oxygen saturation

\(\mathop {V}\limits^{.} {\text{E}}\)

Expired ventilation

\(\mathop {V}\limits^{.} {\text{E}}/\mathop {V}\limits^{.} {\text{C}}{{\text{O}}_2}\)

Ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide

VHL

Voluntary hypoventilation at low lung volume

\(\mathop {V}\limits^{.} {{\text{O}}_2}\)

Oxygen uptake

\(\mathop {V}\limits^{.} {{\text{O}}_{2\hbox{max} }}\)

Maximal oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to sincerely thank all the subjects who participated in this study for their hard efforts and dedicated time.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.URePSSS, Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport, Santé, Société, Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l’EPUniversity of LilleRonchinFrance
  2. 2.ARPEH, Association pour la Recherche et la Promotion de l’Entraînement en HypoventilationLilleFrance
  3. 3.ISSUL, Institute of Sports SciencesUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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