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Effects of progressive resistance training and weight loss versus weight loss alone on inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in older adults with type 2 diabetes

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European Journal of Applied Physiology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Purpose

Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increase in inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers, which are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes-related complications. This study examined the effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (PRT) with moderate weight loss (WL) versus WL alone on inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in older overweight adults with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

This was a 12-month randomized controlled trial in which 36 inactive, overweight adults aged 60–80 years with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes were randomized to 6 months of supervised PRT + WL or stretching (sham) exercise plus WL followed by 6 months of home-training without dietary modification. Fasted blood samples were collected at baseline and subsequent 3-month intervals with the following inflammatory [interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adiponectin] and endothelial markers [resistin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1)] assessed.

Results

No significant within-group changes or between-group differences were detected for any inflammatory or endothelial biomarker following the 6-month supervised exercise and WL phase. There was a greater reduction in IL-10 at 9 months in the PRT + WL relative to WL group (P = 0.033). There was also a greater reduction in TNF-α at 9 and 12 months in the PRT + WL relative to WL group (P = 0.026 and P = 0.024, respectively). Serum adiponectin increased in the PRT + WL relative to WL group after 12 months (P = 0.036). All results were adjusted for baseline values, age, weight, sex, diabetes duration, medication use and any change in medication.

Conclusions

Long-term participation in PRT, independent of change in weight, can result in some improvements in certain inflammatory markers in older overweight adults with type 2 diabetes.

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Abbreviations

HbA1c :

Glycated hemoglobin

hs-CRP:

High sensitive C-reactive protein

IL-6:

Interleukin-6

IL-10:

Interleukin-10

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

ICAM-1:

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1

PRT:

Progressive resistance training

WL:

Weight loss

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Acknowledgements

Funds for the purchase of exercise equipment were kindly provided by the Rotary Club of Kew, Victoria, Australia and by Soroptimist International, Brighton Division. We wish to thanks all the volunteers whose cooperation and dedication made this study possible.

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Correspondence to Robin M. Daly.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

This study was financially supported by a Grant from the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth) (Grant No. 98-0146).

Additional information

Communicated by Fabio Fischetti.

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421_2017_3657_MOESM1_ESM.docx

Online Resource 1: Mean baseline values, absolute changes relative to baseline and the net between group differences for the change after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months for the various serum inflammatory markers, adiponectin and the endothelial markers resistin and ICAM-1 for the PRT + WL and WL groups. ‡ P<0.05 vs WL at baseline (DOCX 25 kb)

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Miller, E.G., Sethi, P., Nowson, C.A. et al. Effects of progressive resistance training and weight loss versus weight loss alone on inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Appl Physiol 117, 1669–1678 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3657-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3657-2

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