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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 117, Issue 5, pp 989–1004 | Cite as

The time course of short-term hypertrophy in the absence of eccentric muscle damage

  • Matt S. Stock
  • Jacob A. Mota
  • Ryan N. DeFranco
  • Katherine A. Grue
  • A. Unique Jacobo
  • Eunhee Chung
  • Jordan R. Moon
  • Jason M. DeFreitas
  • Travis W. Beck
Original Article

Abstract

Background

It has been proposed that the increase in skeletal muscle mass observed during the initial weeks of initiating a resistance training program is concomitant with eccentric muscle damage and edema.

Purpose

We examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy during 4 weeks of concentric-only resistance training.

Methods

Thirteen untrained men performed unilateral concentric-only dumbbell curls and shoulder presses twice per week for 4 weeks. Sets of 8–12 repetitions were performed to failure, and training loads were increased during each session. Subjects consumed 500 ml of whole milk during training. Assessments of soreness, lean mass, echo intensity, muscle thickness, relaxed and flexed arm circumference, and isokinetic strength were performed every 72 or 96 h.

Results

Soreness, echo intensity, relaxed circumference, and peak torque data did not significantly change. Significant increases in lean mass, muscle thickness, and flexed circumference were observed within seven training sessions. Lean mass was elevated at tests #7 (+109.3 g, p = .002) and #8 (+116.1 g, p = .035), with eight different subjects showing changes above the minimal difference of 139.1 g. Muscle thickness was elevated at tests #6 (+0.23 cm, p = .004), #7 (+0.31 cm, p < .001), and #8 (+0.27 cm, p < .001), with ten subjects exceeding the minimal difference of 0.24 cm. There were no changes for the control arm.

Conclusion

In individuals beginning a resistance training program, small but detectable increases in hypertrophy may occur in the absence of eccentric muscle damage within seven training sessions.

Keywords

Muscle mass Lean mass Soreness Concentric Torque Force 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

A.U.

Arbitrary units

DXA

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

1RM

One-repetition maximum

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Tyler Cook, Thomas Risenhoover, Allan Venegas, Aaron Woodward, and Matt Hamm for their assistance with the training and spotting of subjects. We also wish to thank the Texas Tech University Honors College for their support of Ms. Jacobo through the Undergraduate Research Scholar program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matt S. Stock
    • 1
  • Jacob A. Mota
    • 2
  • Ryan N. DeFranco
    • 3
  • Katherine A. Grue
    • 3
  • A. Unique Jacobo
    • 4
  • Eunhee Chung
    • 5
  • Jordan R. Moon
    • 6
  • Jason M. DeFreitas
    • 7
  • Travis W. Beck
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Health ProfessionsUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Sport ScienceUniversity of North Carolina-Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Kinesiology and Sport ManagementTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  4. 4.Honors CollegeTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  5. 5.Department of Kinesiology, Health, and NutritionUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  6. 6.American Public University System,Charles TownUSA
  7. 7.Applied Neuromuscular Physiology LaboratoryOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  8. 8.Department of Health and Exercise ScienceUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA

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