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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 11–12, pp 2375–2388 | Cite as

High-intensity Interval training enhances mobilization/functionality of endothelial progenitor cells and depressed shedding of vascular endothelial cells undergoing hypoxia

  • Hsing-Hua Tsai
  • Chin-Pu Lin
  • Yi-Hui Lin
  • Chih-Chin Hsu
  • Jong-Shyan Wang
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition.

Methods

Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO2max, n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20). Mon-EPC characteristics and EPC functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12 % O2) were determined before and after HIT, MCT, and CTL.

Results

The results demonstrated that after the intervention, the HIT group exhibited larger improvements in VO2peak, estimated peak cardiac output (QC), and estimated peak perfusions of frontal cerebral lobe (QFC) and vastus lateralis (QVL) than the MCT group. Furthermore, HIT (a) increased circulating CD14++/CD16/CD34+/KDR+ (Mon-1 EPC) and CD14++/CD16+/CD34+/KDR+ (Mon-2 EPC) cell counts, (b) promoted the migration and tube formation of EPCs, (c) diminished the shedding of endothelial (CD34/KDR+/phosphatidylserine+) cells, and (d) elevated plasma nitrite plus nitrate, stromal cell-derived factor-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A concentrations at rest or following HE, compared to those of MCT. In addition, Mon-1 and -2 EPC counts were directly related to VO2peak and estimated peak QC, QFC, and QVL.

Conclusions

HIT is superior to MCT for improving hemodynamic adaptation and Mon-EPC production. Moreover, HIT effectively enhances EPC functionality and suppresses endothelial injury undergoing hypoxia.

Keywords

Exercise Hypoxia Hemodynamic Endothelial progenitor cell 

Abbreviations

Mon-EPCs

Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells

HIT

High-intensity interval

MCT

Moderate-intensity continuous

HE

Hypoxic exercise

QC

Cardiac output

QFC

Peak perfusions of frontal cerebral lobe

QVL

Vastus lateralis

Mon-1 EPC

CD14++/CD16/CD34+/KDR+

Mon-2 EPC

CD14++/CD16+/CD34+/KDR+

KDR+

Kinase domain receptor-positive

CTL

Control group

VO2max

Maximal O2 consumption

HR

Heart rate

GXT

Graded exercise test

VE

Minute ventilation

VCO2

Carbonic dioxide production

NICOM

Noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitoring system

SV

Stroke volume

SVC

Systemic vascular conductance

NIR

Near-infrared

FC

Left frontal cortex

VL

Left vastus lateralis muscle

PBMCs

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

FITC

Fluorescein isothiocyanate

PE

Phycoerythrin

HSC

Hemangioblast stem cell

EPC

Early endothelial progenitor cell

CEP

Endothelial precursor cell

PS+

CD34/KDR+/phosphatidylserine+

ECIS

Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing

ET

Effective time

Tmax

Maximum impedance

NO

Nitric oxide

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the volunteers for their enthusiastic participation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Funding

This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan (Grant Number NSC 100-2314-B-182-004-MY3), Chang Gung Medical Research Program (Grant number CMRPD190173), and Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University (Grant Number EMRPD1A0841).

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, are declared by the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hsing-Hua Tsai
    • 1
  • Chin-Pu Lin
    • 1
  • Yi-Hui Lin
    • 1
  • Chih-Chin Hsu
    • 2
  • Jong-Shyan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Healthy Aging Research Center, Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation ScienceChang Gung UniversityTao-YuanTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationChang Gung Memorial HospitalKeelungTaiwan
  3. 3.Heart Failure CenterChang Gung Memorial HospitalKeelungTaiwan

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