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Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles

Abstract

Purpose

It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this.

Methods

Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined.

Results

After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG.

Conclusion

The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

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Abbreviations

AEMG:

An average value relative to integration time of integrated electromyogram during a task

CG:

Control group

CSA:

Cross-sectional area

EMG:

Electromyogram

ES:

Erector spinae

GM:

Gluteus maximus

IAP:

Intra-abdominal pressure

IAPmax:

Maximal IAP during abdominal bracing

OE:

Oblique external

OI:

Oblique internal

RA:

Rectus abdominis

RF:

Rectus femoris

TG:

Training group

TrA:

Transversus abdominis

VL:

Vastus lateralis

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26350748 [Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)].

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Correspondence to Hiroaki Kanehisa.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Communicated by Benedicte Schepens.

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Tayashiki, K., Maeo, S., Usui, S. et al. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol 116, 1703–1713 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3424-9

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Keywords

  • Stabilization exercise
  • Abdominal co-contraction
  • Electromyogram
  • Abdominal muscle thickness
  • Intra-abdominal pressure