Epigenetic changes in leukocytes after 8 weeks of resistance exercise training

Abstract

Purpose

Regular engagement in resistance exercise training elicits many health benefits including improvement to muscular strength, hypertrophy and insulin sensitivity, though the underpinning molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence 8 weeks of resistance exercise training has on leukocyte genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in healthy young men.

Methods

Eight young (21.1 ± 2.2 years) men completed one repetition maximum (1RM) testing before completing 8 weeks of supervised, thrice-weekly resistance exercise training comprising three sets of 8–12 repetitions with a load equivalent to 80 % of 1RM. Blood samples were collected at rest before and after the 8-week training intervention. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression were assessed on isolated leukocyte DNA and RNA using the 450K BeadChip and HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip (Illumina), respectively.

Results

Resistance exercise training significantly improved upper and lower body strength concurrently with diverse genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression changes (p ≤ 0. 01). DNA methylation changes occurred at multiple regions throughout the genome in context with genes and CpG islands, and in genes relating to axon guidance, diabetes and immune pathways. There were multiple genes with increased expression that were enriched for RNA processing and developmental proteins. Growth factor genes—GHRH and FGF1—showed differential methylation and mRNA expression changes after resistance training.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that resistance exercise training improves muscular strength and is associated with reprogramming of the leukocyte DNA methylome and transcriptome.

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Abbreviations

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

χ 2 :

Chi squared

CpG:

Cytosine neighbouring a guanine dinucleotide

DAVID:

Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNMT:

DNA methyltransferase

FGF1:

Fibroblast growth factor 1

GHRH:

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

INS:

Insulin

IPAQ:

International Physical Activity Questionnaire

MET:

Metabolic equivalent of task

mRNA:

Messenger RNA

NF-kB:

Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells

1RM:

One repetition maximum

RET:

Resistance exercise training

RNA:

Ribonucleic acid

TET:

Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase

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Acknowledgments

We thank the Australian Genome Research Facility for the help with the arrays.

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Correspondence to Joshua Denham.

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Conflict of interest

None declared.

Funding

This work was supported by the Federation University Australia ‘Self-sustaining Regions Research Innovation Initiative’ and the Australian Government Collaborative Research Network (CRN). This work was also supported by a Federation University Australia Faculty of Health Seeding Grant obtained by B.J.O and F.Z.M. F.Z.M is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1052659) and National Heart Foundation (PF12M6785) co-shared Early Career Fellowships. F.J.C is supported by the Lew Carty Charitable Fund and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

Additional information

Communicated by William J. Kraemer.

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Denham, J., Marques, F.Z., Bruns, E.L. et al. Epigenetic changes in leukocytes after 8 weeks of resistance exercise training. Eur J Appl Physiol 116, 1245–1253 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3382-2

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Keywords

  • Epigenome
  • Transcriptome
  • Strength training
  • mRNA expression
  • DNA methylation