Football training in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: activity profile and short-term skeletal and postural balance adaptations
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To investigate the activity profile of football training and its short-term effects on bone mass, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and postural balance in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
This was a randomised 12-week study in which men with PCa undergoing ADT were assigned to a football intervention group [FTG, n = 29, 67 ± 7 (±SD) years] training 2‒3 times per week for 45‒60 min or to a control group (n = 28, 66 ± 5 years). The activity profile was measured using a 5-Hz GPS. The outcomes were total body and leg bone mineral content (BMC) and density, BTMs and postural balance.
In the last part of the 12 weeks, FTG performed 194 ± 41 accelerations and 296 ± 65 decelerations at >0.6 m/s/s and covered a distance of 905 ± 297 m at speeds >6 km/h and 2646 ± 705 m per training session. Analysis of baseline-to-12-week change scores showed between-group differences in favour of FTG in total body BMC [26.4 g, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 5.8–46.9 g, p = 0.013], leg BMC (13.8 g, 95 % CI: 7.0‒20.5 g, p < 0.001) and markers of bone formation: P1NP (36.6 µg/L, 95 % CI: 10.4‒62.8 µg/L, p = 0.008) and osteocalcin (8.6 µg/L, 95 % CI: 3.3‒13.8 µg/L, p < 0.01). The number of decelerations correlated to the increase in leg BMC (r = 0.65, p = 0.012). No between-group differences were observed for the remaining outcomes.
Football training involves numerous runs, accelerations and decelerations, which may be linked to marked increases in bone formation markers and preserved bone mass in middle-aged and elderly men with PCa undergoing ADT.
KeywordsGPS Exercise intensity Bone turnover markers (BTM) Bone mineral content (BMC) Association football Prostate cancer
Androgen deprivation therapy
Body mass index
Bone mineral content
Bone mineral density
Bone turnover markers
Standard care control group
C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Football training group
Global positioning system
Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide
The authors would like to thank all the participants for their contributions to the study. The authors would also like to thank Emil Sundstrup, Ditte Marie Bruun, Christian Frandsen and Jens Jung Nielsen for their expert advice and assistance in collecting data. The study was supported by grants from the Center for Integrated Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients (CIRE), which was established and is supported by the Danish Cancer Society and the Novo Nordisk Foundation. TrygFonden as well as the Preben and Anna Simonsens Fond also supported the project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
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