The effects of beetroot juice supplementation on indices of muscle damage following eccentric exercise
Foods rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals might attenuate skeletal muscle damage; thus, the present study investigated whether consuming an antioxidant rich beetroot juice would attenuate the muscle-damaging effects of eccentric exercise.
Using a double blind, independent groups design, 30 recreationally active males were allocated to consume a high dose of beetroot juice (H-BT; 250 ml), a lower dose of beetroot juice (L-BT; 125 ml), or an isocaloric placebo (PLA; 250 ml) immediately (×3 servings), 24 (×2 servings) and 48 h (×2 servings) following completion of 100-drop jumps. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), pressure pain threshold (PPT), creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured pre, post, 2 (blood indices only), 24, 48 and 72 h following the drop jumps.
CMJ performance recovered quicker (relative to baseline) in H-BT vs. PLA at 48 (91.7 ± 12.2 vs. 74.4 ± 17.3 %; P = 0.009, ES = 1.00) and 72 h postexercise (93.4 ± 7.7 vs. 86 ± 5.9 %; P = 0.046, ES = 1.25). PPT was greater in both the H-BT and L-BT vs. PLA at 24, 48 and 72 h postexercise (P < 0.001); PPT had returned to baseline in H-BT and L-BT at 72 h postexercise, but was still reduced in PLA (80.1 ± 28.9 % of baseline values). MIVC, CK, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-8 were unaffected by beetroot juice (P > 0.05).
Acute beetroot juice supplementation attenuated muscle soreness and decrements in CMJ performance induced by eccentric exercise; further research on the anti-inflammatory effects of beetroot juice are required to elucidate the precise mechanisms.
KeywordsExercise recovery Muscle damage Inflammation Betalains
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This study was funded as part of a doctoral degree that receives financial support from Gs Fresh Ltd. The funders supplied the supplements used in this study, but had no role in the conception of the study, its design, preparation, analysis and writing of the manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Brickson S, Ji LL, Schell K, Olabisi R, Schneider BSP, Best TM (2003) M1/70 attenuates blood-borne neutrophil oxidants, activation, and myofiber damage following stretch injury. J App Phys 95:969–976Google Scholar
- Magalhaes PJ, Vieira JS, Goncalves LM, Pacheco JG, Guido LF, Barros AA (2010) Isolation of phenolic compounds from hop extracts using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone: characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:3258–3268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pietrzkowski Z, Spórna A, Stalica P et al (2010) Influence of betalain-rich extract on reduction of discomfort associated with osteoarthritis. New Med 1:12–17Google Scholar
- Pietrzkowski Z, Argumedo R, Shu C et al (2014) Betalain-rich red beet concentrate improves reduced knee discomfort and joint function: a double blind, placebo-controlled pilot clinical study. Nutr and Diet Suppl 2014:9–13Google Scholar