Maximal force and tremor changes across the menstrual cycle
Sex hormones have profound effects on the nervous system in vitro and in vivo. The present study examines the effect of the menstrual cycle on maximal isometric force (MVC) and tremor during an endurance task.
Nine eumenorrheic females participated in five study visits across their menstrual cycle. In each menstrual phase, an MVC and an endurance task to failure were performed. Tremor across the endurance task was quantified as the coefficient of variation in force and was assessed in absolute time and relative percent time to task failure.
MVC decreases 23 % from ovulation to the mid luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In absolute time, the mid luteal phase has the highest initial tremor, though the early follicular phase has substantially higher tremor than other phases after 150 s of task performance. In relative time, the mid luteal phase has the highest level of tremor throughout the endurance task.
Both MVC and tremor during an endurance task are modified by the menstrual cycle. Performance of tasks and sports which require high force and steadiness to exhaustion may be decreased in the mid luteal phase compared to other menstrual phases.
KeywordsMenstrual cycle Maximal force Tremor Estrogen Progesterone Fatigue
Analysis of variance
Basal body temperature
Estrogen receptor alpha
Maximal voluntary contraction
- Bulun S, Adashi E (2011) The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky K, PR L, Kronenberg H (eds) Williams textbook of endocrinology, vol 12. Elsevier Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Epperson CN, Haga K, Mason GF, Sellers E, Gueorguieva R, Zhang W, Weiss E, Rothman DL, Krystal JH (2002) Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(9):851–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fox J, Weisberg S (2011) An R companion to applied regression, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
- Harada M, Kubo H, Nose A, Nishitani H, Matsuda T (2011) Measurement of variation in the human cerebral GABA level by in vivo MEGA-editing proton MR spectroscopy using a clinical 3 T instrument and its dependence on brain region and the female menstrual cycle. Hum Brain Mapp 32(5):828–833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Herzog AG, Friedman MN, Freund S, Pascual-Leone A (2001) Transcranial magnetic stimulation evidence of a potential role for progesterone in the modulation of premenstrual corticocortical inhibition in a woman with catamenial seizure exacerbation. Epilepsy Behav 2(4):367–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schultz KN, von Esenwein SA, Hu M, Bennett AL, Kennedy RT, Musatov S, Toran-Allerand CD, Kaplitt MG, Young LJ, Becker JB (2009) Viral vector-mediated overexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha in striatum enhances the estradiol-induced motor activity in female rats and estradiol-modulated GABA release. J Neurosci 29(6):1897–1903PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computingGoogle Scholar
- Wickham H, Francois R (2015) dplyr: a grammar of data manipulation R package version 0.4.1Google Scholar