Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates eccentric exercise-inflicted blood inflammatory markers in women

Abstract

Purpose

Rigorous exercise is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflict inflammatory response. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation in humans after an acute bout of eccentric exercise.

Methods

Young women (age 18–30 years, N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA (AVA) or 0.4 mg AVA (Control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen each group of subjects ran downhill (DR) on a treadmill at −9 % grade for 1 h at a speed to elicit 75 % of maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 24 h post-DR.

Results

Before dietary supplementation plasma creatine kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration were increased immediately after DR (P < 0.05), whereas neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) was elevated 24 h post-DR (P < 0.05). CK and TNF-α response to DR was abolished during post-supplementation tests in both AVA and C groups, whereas NRB was blunted only in AVA but not in C. Plasma interleukin-6 level and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB activity were not affected by DR either before or after dietary supplementation, but were lowered 24 h post-DR in AVA versus C (P < 0.05). Both groups increased plasma total antioxidant activity following 8-week dietary regimen (P < 0.05), whereas only AVA group increased resting plasma glutathione (GSH) concentration (P < 0.05), decreased glutathione disulfide response to DR, and lowered erythrocyte GSH peroxidase activity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Our data of pre- and post-supplementation difference reflect an interaction between repeated measure effect of eccentric exercise and AVA in diet. Long-term AVA supplementation can attenuate blood inflammation markers, decrease ROS generation and NFkB activation, and increased antioxidant capacity during an eccentric exercise bout.

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Abbreviations

AVA:

Avenanthramides

BMI:

Body mass index

CK:

Ceatine kinase

CRP:

C-reactive protein

DR:

Downhill running

GSH:

Glutathione

GSSG:

Glutathione disulfide

GPx:

Glutathione peroxidase

IL:

Interleukin

(NF) κB:

Nuclear factor-kappaB

NRB:

Neutrophil respiratory burst

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

SOD:

Superoxide dismutase

TAC:

Total antioxidant capacity

TNF-α:

Tumor necrosis factor-α

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Acknowledgments

R.K. and L.L.J. designed research; R.K., J.R.D. and C.K. conducted research; R.K. analyzed data; R.K., C.K., Y.C., and L.L.J. wrote the paper; T.O.Z. formatted the paper; L.L.J. had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This research was supported by a grant from the University of Wisconsin Foundation.

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Correspondence to Li Li Ji.

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Communicated by Fabio Fischetti.

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Koenig, R.T., Dickman, J.R., Kang, C. et al. Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates eccentric exercise-inflicted blood inflammatory markers in women. Eur J Appl Physiol 116, 67–76 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3244-3

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Avenanthramide
  • Cytokine
  • Exercise
  • Inflammation