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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 1, pp 67–76 | Cite as

Avenanthramide supplementation attenuates eccentric exercise-inflicted blood inflammatory markers in women

  • Ryan T. Koenig
  • Jonathan R. Dickman
  • Choung-Hun Kang
  • Tianou Zhang
  • Yi-Fang Chu
  • Li Li Ji
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Rigorous exercise is known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflict inflammatory response. The present study investigated whether dietary supplementation of avenanthramides (AVA) in oats would increase antioxidant protection and reduce inflammation in humans after an acute bout of eccentric exercise.

Methods

Young women (age 18–30 years, N = 16) were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving two cookies made of oat flour providing 9.2 mg AVA (AVA) or 0.4 mg AVA (Control, C) each day for 8 weeks. Before and after the dietary regimen each group of subjects ran downhill (DR) on a treadmill at −9 % grade for 1 h at a speed to elicit 75 % of maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately and 24 h post-DR.

Results

Before dietary supplementation plasma creatine kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentration were increased immediately after DR (P < 0.05), whereas neutrophil respiratory burst (NRB) was elevated 24 h post-DR (P < 0.05). CK and TNF-α response to DR was abolished during post-supplementation tests in both AVA and C groups, whereas NRB was blunted only in AVA but not in C. Plasma interleukin-6 level and mononuclear cell nuclear factor (NF) κB activity were not affected by DR either before or after dietary supplementation, but were lowered 24 h post-DR in AVA versus C (P < 0.05). Both groups increased plasma total antioxidant activity following 8-week dietary regimen (P < 0.05), whereas only AVA group increased resting plasma glutathione (GSH) concentration (P < 0.05), decreased glutathione disulfide response to DR, and lowered erythrocyte GSH peroxidase activity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Our data of pre- and post-supplementation difference reflect an interaction between repeated measure effect of eccentric exercise and AVA in diet. Long-term AVA supplementation can attenuate blood inflammation markers, decrease ROS generation and NFkB activation, and increased antioxidant capacity during an eccentric exercise bout.

Keywords

Antioxidant Avenanthramide Cytokine Exercise Inflammation 

Abbreviations

AVA

Avenanthramides

BMI

Body mass index

CK

Ceatine kinase

CRP

C-reactive protein

DR

Downhill running

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Glutathione disulfide

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

IL

Interleukin

(NF) κB

Nuclear factor-kappaB

NRB

Neutrophil respiratory burst

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TAC

Total antioxidant capacity

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

Notes

Acknowledgments

R.K. and L.L.J. designed research; R.K., J.R.D. and C.K. conducted research; R.K. analyzed data; R.K., C.K., Y.C., and L.L.J. wrote the paper; T.O.Z. formatted the paper; L.L.J. had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This research was supported by a grant from the University of Wisconsin Foundation.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryan T. Koenig
    • 1
  • Jonathan R. Dickman
    • 1
  • Choung-Hun Kang
    • 2
  • Tianou Zhang
    • 2
  • Yi-Fang Chu
    • 3
  • Li Li Ji
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise ScienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Quaker Oats Center of ExcellencePepsiCo NutritionBarringtonUSA

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