European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 12, pp 2661–2670

Spatial EMG potential distribution of biceps brachii muscle during resistance training and detraining

Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

We investigated the effect of resistance training and detraining on the spatial distribution pattern of surface electromyography (SEMG) of the biceps brachii.

Methods

Ten male subjects completed 6 weeks of resistance training of one arm and 8 weeks of detraining. During training and detraining periods, spatial distribution patterns of SEMG were measured and quantified with 64 two-dimensional electrodes.

Results

MVC, muscle thickness, and SEMG amplitude of the trained arm were significantly greater than those of the untrained arm after the 6 weeks of resistance training (p < 0.05), but these differences were no longer observed after 2 months of detraining. On the other hand, no significant differences in the spatial distribution pattern of SEMG were observed between the arms.

Conclusion

Spatial distribution pattern of SEMG was not changed during resistance training and detraining periods. This suggests that detectable adaptations in the motor unit recruitment pattern do not occur during regular resistance training.

Keywords

Multi-channel surface electromyography Neural adaptation Motor unit recruitment 

Abbreviations

ARV

Average rectified value

BB

Biceps brachii

SEMG

Surface electromyography

MVC

Maximal voluntary contraction

MU

Motor unit

1RM

One repetition maximum,

References

  1. Akima H, Takahashi H, Kuno SY, Masuda K, Masuda T, Shimojo H et al (1999) Early phase adaptations of muscle use and strength to isokinetic training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:588–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blazevich AJ, Gill ND, Deans N, Zhou S (2007) Lack of human muscle architectural adaptation after short-term strength training. Muscle Nerve 35:78–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chanaud CM, Macpherson JM (1991) Functionally complex muscles of the cat hindlimb. III. Differential activation within biceps femoris during postural perturbations. Exp Brain Res 85:271–280CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Erim Z, De Luca CJ, Mineo K, Aoki T (1996) Rank-ordered regulation of motor units. Muscle Nerve 19:563–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Farina D, Merletti R, Enoka RM (2004) The extraction of neural strategies from the surface EMG. J Appl Physiol 96:1486–1495CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Farina D, Leclerc F, Arendt-Nielsen L, Buttelli O, Madeleine P (2008) The change in spatial distribution of upper trapezius muscle activity is correlated to contraction duration. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 18:16–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Farina D, Holobar A, Merletti R, Enoka RM (2010) Decoding the neural drive to muscles from the surface electromyogram. Clin Neurophysiol 121:1616–1623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gabriel DA, Kamen G, Frost G (2006) Neural adaptations to resistive exercise: mechanisms and recommendations for training practices. Sports Med 36:133–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gallina A, Merletti R, Gazzoni M (2013) Uneven spatial distribution of surface EMG: what does it mean? Eur J Appl Physiol 113:887–894CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hakkinen K, Komi PV (1983) Electromyographic changes during strength training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 15:455–460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hakkinen K, Newton RU, Gordon SE, McCormick M, Volek JS, Nindl BC et al (1998) Changes in muscle morphology, electromyographic activity, and force production characteristics during progressive strength training in young and older men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 53:B415–B423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Holtermann A, Gronlund C (2008) Stefan Karlsson J, Roeleveld K. Spatial distribution of active muscle fibre characteristics in the upper trapezius muscle and its dependency on contraction level and duration. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 18:372–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Holtermann A, Roeleveld K (2006) EMG amplitude distribution changes over the upper trapezius muscle are similar in sustained and ramp contractions. Acta Physiol 186:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holtermann A, Roeleveld K, Karlsson JS (2005) Inhomogeneities in muscle activation reveal motor unit recruitment. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 15:131–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Holtermann A, Gronlund C, Karlsson JS, Roeleveld K (2008) Differential activation of regions within the biceps brachii muscle during fatigue. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) 192:559–567Google Scholar
  16. Holtermann A, Roeleveld K, Mork PJ, Gronlund C, Karlsson JS, Andersen LL et al (2009) Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 19:896–902CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Houston ME, Froese EA, Valeriote SP, Green HJ, Ranney DA (1983) Muscle performance, morphology and metabolic capacity during strength training and detraining: a one leg model. Eur J Appl Physiol 51:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubal MJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Thompson PD, Price TB, Hoffman EP, Angelopoulos TJ et al (2005) Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:964–972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kamen G (2005) Aging, resistance training, and motor unit discharge behavior. Can J Appl Physiol 30:341–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamen G, Knight CA (2004) Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59:1334–1338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Komi PV, Viitasalo JT, Rauramaa R, Vihko V (1978) Effect of isometric strength training of mechanical, electrical, and metabolic aspects of muscle function. Eur J Appl Physiol 40:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA (2004) Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:674–688CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Krentz JR, Farthing JP (2010) Neural and morphological changes in response to a 20-day intense eccentric training protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:333–340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lexell J, Downham DY (1991) The occurrence of fibre-type grouping in healthy human muscle: a quantitative study of cross-sections of whole vastus lateralis from men between 15 and 83 years. Acta Neuropathol 81:377–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Merletti R, Holobar A, Farina D (2008) Analysis of motor units with high-density surface electromyography. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 18:879–890CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Moritani T, deVries HA (1979) Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med 58:115–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Narici MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, Minetti AE, Cerretelli P (1989) Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol 59:310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tucker K, Falla D, Graven-Nielsen T, Farina D (2009) Electromyographic mapping of the erector spinae muscle with varying load and during sustained contraction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 19:373–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Van Cutsem M, Duchateau J, Hainaut K (1998) Changes in single motor unit behaviour contribute to the increase in contraction speed after dynamic training in humans. J Physiol 513(Pt 1):295–305PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Vila-Cha C, Falla D, Farina D (2010) Motor unit behavior during submaximal contractions following 6 weeks of either endurance or strength training. J Appl Physiol 109:1455–1466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Watanabe K, Kouzaki M, Fujibayashi M, Merletti R, Moritani T (2012a) Spatial EMG potential distribution pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during isometric knee extension in young and elderly men. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 22:74–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Watanabe K, Miyamoto T, Tanaka Y, Fukuda K, Moritani T (2012b) Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients manifest characteristic spatial EMG potential distribution pattern during sustained isometric contraction. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 97:468–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kohei Watanabe
    • 1
  • Motoki Kouzaki
    • 2
  • Toshio Moritani
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Neuromuscular Biomechanics, School of International Liberal StudiesChukyo UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Human and Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Applied Physiology, Graduate School of Human and Environmental StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations