High intensity cycling before SCUBA diving reduces post-decompression microparticle production and neutrophil activation
- 396 Downloads
Venous gas emboli (VGE) have traditionally served as a marker for decompression stress after SCUBA diving and a reduction in bubble loads is a target for precondition procedures. However, VGE can be observed in large quantities with no negative clinical consequences. The effect of exercise before diving on VGE has been evaluated with mixed results. Microparticle (MP) counts and sub-type expression serve as indicators of vascular inflammation and DCS in mice. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anaerobic cycling (AC) on VGE and MP following SCUBA diving.
Ten male divers performed two dives to 18 m for 41 min, one dive (AC) was preceded by a repeated-Wingate cycling protocol; a control dive (CON) was completed without exercise. VGE were analyzed at 15, 40, 80, and 120 min post-diving. Blood for MP analysis was collected before exercise (AC only), before diving, 15 and 120 min after surfacing.
VGE were significantly lower 15 min post-diving in the AC group, with no difference in the remaining measurements. MPs were elevated by exercise and diving, however, post-diving elevations were attenuated in the AC dive. Some markers of neutrophil elevation (CD18, CD41) were increased in the CON compared to the AC dive.
The repeated-Wingate protocol resulted in an attenuation of MP counts and sub-types that have been related to vascular injury and DCS-like symptoms in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if MPs represent a risk factor or marker for DCS in humans.
KeywordsSCUBA diving Exercise Microparticles Neutrophil activation High intensity
Analysis of variance
Body mass index
High intensity training
Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
Venous gas emboli
Maximal volume of oxygen uptake
The research leading to these results has received funding from the People Program (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program FRP/2007-2013/under REA grant agreement n° 264816, the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (Grant No. 216-2160133-0130 to ZD) and the Office of Naval Research: ONR grant (Microparticle production with decompression stress - N00014-13-10614).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, Fisher JP, Ranasinghe AM, Barker TA, Tipton KD, Wagenmakers AJ (2013) Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males. J Physiol 591(Pt 3):641–656PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eckenhoff RG, Olstad CS, Carrod G (1990) Human dose-response relationship for decompression and endogenous bubble formation. J Appl Physiol (1985) 69(3):914–918Google Scholar
- Madden D, Thom SR, Milovanova TN, Yang M, Bhopale VM, Ljubkovic M, Dujic Z (2014) Exercise before SCUBA diving ameliorates decompression-induced neutrophil activation. Med Sci Sports ExercGoogle Scholar
- Thom SR, Milovanova TN, Bogush M, Bhopale VM, Yang M, Bushmann K, Pollock NW, Ljubkovic M, Denoble P, Dujic Z (2012) Microparticle production, neutrophil activation, and intravascular bubbles following open-water SCUBA diving. J Appl Physiol 112(8):1268–1278. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01305.2011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thom SR, Milovanova TN, Bogush M, Yang M, Bhopale VM, Pollock NW, Ljubkovic M, Denoble PJ, Madden D, Lozo M, Dujic Z (2013) Bubbles, microparticles and neutrophil activation: changes with exercise level and breathing gas during open-water SCUBA diving. J Appl Physiol 114(10):1396–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Trappenburg MC, van Schilfgaarde M, Frerichs FC, Spronk HM, ten Cate H, de Fijter CW, Terpstra WE, Leyte A (2012) Chronic renal failure is accompanied by endothelial activation and a large increase in microparticle numbers with reduced procoagulant capacity. Nephrol Dial Transplant 27(4):1446–1453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar