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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 9, pp 1821–1830 | Cite as

Inspiratory muscle warm-up does not improve cycling time-trial performance

  • M. A. JohnsonEmail author
  • I. R. Gregson
  • D. E. Mills
  • J. T. Gonzalez
  • G. R. Sharpe
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the effects of an active cycling warm-up, with and without the addition of an inspiratory muscle warm-up (IMW), on 10-km cycling time-trial performance.

Methods

Ten cyclists (\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2} \,{ \hbox{max} }\) = 65 ± 9 mL kg−1 min−1) performed a habituation 10-km cycling time-trial and three further time-trials preceded by either no warm-up (CONT), a cycling-specific warm-up (CYC) comprising three consecutive 5-min bouts at powers corresponding to 70, 80, and 90 % of the gas exchange threshold, or a cycling-specific warm-up preceded by an IMW (CYC + IMW) comprising two sets of 30 inspiratory efforts against a pressure-threshold load of 40 % maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The cycling warm-up was followed by 2-min rest before the start of the time-trial.

Results

Time-trial performance times during CYC (14.75 ± 0.79 min) and CYC + IMW (14.70 ± 0.75 min) were not different, although both were faster than CONT (14.99 ± 0.90 min) (P < 0.05). Throughout the time-trial, physiological (minute ventilation, breathing pattern, pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate, blood lactate concentration and pH) and perceptual (limb discomfort and dyspnoea) responses were not different between CYC and CYC + IMW. Baseline MIP during CONT and CYC was 151 ± 31 and 156 ± 39 cmH2O, respectively, and was unchanged following the time-trial. MIP increased by 8 % after IMW (152 ± 27 vs. 164 ± 27 cmH2O, P < 0.05) and returned to baseline after the time-trial.

Conclusions

Improvements in 10-km cycling time-trial performance following an active cycling warm-up were not magnified by the addition of an IMW. Therefore, an appropriately designed active whole-body warm-up does adequately prepare the inspiratory muscles for cycling time-trials lasting approximately 15 min.

Keywords

Respiratory muscle Pacing Prior exercise Perception 

Abbreviations

CONT

Control trial

CYC

Cycling warm-up trial

CYC + IMW

Cycling warm-up plus inspiratory muscle warm-up trial

IMW

Inspiratory muscle warm-up

[La]

Lactate concentration

MIP

Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure

PCO2

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

RER

Respiratory exchange ratio

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

SpO2

Arterial oxygen saturation

\(\dot{V}_{\text{E}}\)

Minute ventilation

\(\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{ 2}\)

Carbon dioxide production

\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\)

Oxygen uptake

\(\dot{W}_{\hbox{max} }\)

Maximal power output

Notes

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Johnson
    • 1
    Email author
  • I. R. Gregson
    • 1
  • D. E. Mills
    • 2
  • J. T. Gonzalez
    • 3
  • G. R. Sharpe
    • 1
  1. 1.Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement (SHAPE) Research Group, School of Science and TechnologyNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Queensland Children’s Medical Research InstituteThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle Upon TyneUK

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