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Table 5 Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on serum creatine kinase (CK), urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine ratio (3MH:Cr), cortisol, and perceived recovery score (PRS) in participants during the overreaching phase, weeks 8, 9, and 10, of a 12-week resistance-training regimen

From: The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  Week of study p valuea
8 9 10
24 h 3MH:Cr (μmol:mg)
 Placebo 0.124 ± 0.012 0.132 ± 0.012 0.152 ± 0.012  
 HMB-FA 0.124 ± 0.012 0.120 ± 0.012 0.141 ± 0.012 0.34
Creatine kinase (IU/l)
 Placebo 256 ± 119.8 494 ± 119.8 533 ± 119.8  
 HMB-FA 256 ± 119.8 288 ± 119.8# 250 ± 119.8# 0.0001
Cortisol (μg/dl)
 Placebo 19.1 ± 1.9 21.9 ± 1.9 23.5 ± 1.9  
 HMB-FA 18.9 ± 1.9 19.8 ± 1.9# 18.8 ± 1.9# 0.003
PRSb
 Placebo 7.9 ± 0.8 5.0 ± 0.8 4.6 ± 0.8  
 HMB-FA 8.4 ± 0.7 7.8 ± 0.7# 7.6 ± 0.7# 0.001
  1. Adjusted least square mean ± SD for n = 11 HMB-FA (3 g HMB-FA free acid/d in three 1 g doses) and n = 9 placebo-supplemented participants
  2. aProbability of treatment by time difference between the placebo and the HMB-FA treatments over weeks 8, 9, and 10, the overreaching portion of the 12-week study. The mixed model in SAS was used with the main effects of treatment, week and treatment by week, with the value for week 8 as a covariate
  3. bPerceived recovery score is rated on the participants feeling of recovery from the last workout on a scale of 0–10
  4. #Significantly different than corresponding placebo, t test (p < 0.05)