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Table 3 Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on body composition and quadriceps depth in participants performing a 12-week resistance-training regimen

From: The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  Week of study
  0 4 8 12 p valuea
Weight (kg)
 Placebo 84.8 ± 0.9 85.7 ± 0.9 86.0 ± 0.9 85.1 ± 0.9  
 HMB-FA 85.0 ± 0.9 85.8 ± 0.9 86.7 ± 0.9 86.9 ± 0.9# 0.003
DXA LBMb (kg)
 Placebo 67.1 ± 1.1 68.0 ± 1.1 70.0 ± 1.1 69.2 ± 1.1  
 HMB-FA 67.1 ± 1.1 70.1 ± 1.1# 72.2 ± 1.1# 74.5 ± 1.1# 0.001
DXA fat (kg)
 Placebo 17.6 ± 1.7 16.8 ± 1.7 16.0 ± 1.7 15.9 ± 1.7  
 HMB-FA 17.9 ± 1.7 15.7 ± 1.7 14.4 ± 1.7# 12.5 ± 1.7# 0.0003
Quadriceps depth (mm)
 Placebo 50.2 ± 2.1 52.2 ± 2.1 52.5 ± 2.1 52.6 ± 2.1  
 HMB-FA 50.2 ± 2.1 53.1 ± 2.1 55.60 ± 2.1# 57.4 ± 2.1# 0.0001
  1. Adjusted least square mean ± SD for n = 11 HMB-FA-supplemented (3 g HMB-FA/d in three 1 g doses) and n = 9 placebo-supplemented participants
  2. aProbability of treatment by time difference between the placebo and HMB-FA treatments over the 12-week study. The mixed model ANOVA in SAS was used with the main effects of treatment, time and treatment by time, with the value for week 0 used as a covariate of treatment
  3. b DXA LBM Dual X-Ray absorptiometry determined lean body mass
  4. #Significantly different than corresponding placebo, t test (p < 0.05)