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Table 1 Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) supplementation on muscle strength and power in participants performing a 12-week resistance-training regimen

From: The effects of 12 weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance-trained individuals: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  Week of study p valuea
  0 4 8 12  
Total strengthb (kg)
 Placebo 426.7 ± 14.5 444.6 ± 14.5 457.8 ± 14.5 452.0 ± 14.5  
 HMB-FA 426.7 ± 14.5 458.7 ± 14.5 477.6 ± 14.5 503.8 ± 14.5 0.0001
Squat (kg)
 Placebo 143.8 ± 5.2 150.4 ± 5.2 155.4 ± 5.2 151.1 ± 5.2  
 HMB-FA 143.7 ± 5.2 154.9 ± 5.2 162.4 ± 5.2# 179.9 ± 5.2# 0.0001
Bench press (kg)
 Placebo 112.9 ± 6.6 116.4 ± 6.6 118.5 ± 6.6 116.7 ± 6.6  
 HMB-FA 112.4 ± 6.6 120.8 ± 6.6 123.7 ± 6.6 125.2 ± 6.6# 0.02
Deadlift (kg)
 Placebo 170.4 ± 9.2 178.2 ± 9.2 184.3 ± 9.2 184.5 ± 9.2  
 HMB-FA 170.3 ± 9.2 182.7 ± 9.2 191.2 ± 9.2 198.4 ± 9.2# 0.009
Wingate peak power (W)
 Placebo 879.1 ± 38.3 927.0 ± 38.3 987.2 ± 38.3 982.5 ± 38.3  
 HMB-FA 879.7 ± 38.3 936.0 ± 38.3 980.7 ± 38.3 1,038.6 ± 38.3# 0.01
Vertical jump power (W)
 Placebo 5,224 ± 73 5,636 ± 73 5,839 ± 73 5,854 ± 73  
 HMB-FA 5,219 ± 73 5,835 ± 73# 6,039 ± 73# 6,211 ± 73# 0.001
  1. Adjusted least square mean ± SD for n = 11 HMB (3 g HMB-FA/d in three 1 g doses) and n = 9 placebo-supplemented participants
  2. aProbability of treatment by time difference between the placebo and the HMB-FA treatments over the 12-week study. The mixed model ANOVA in SAS® was used with the main effects of treatment, time and treatment by time, with the value for week 0 used as a covariate
  3. bTotal strength as the sum of the 1-RM in bench press, squat, and deadlift
  4. #Significantly different than corresponding placebo, t test (p < 0.05)